Getty Museum – Deep Underground Bunker & Other Strange Getty Family Info

The topic of the getty is a new and interesting topic to me since many anons recently have been sharing and enlightening those online. I will start with some of the conspiracy information first, since most people will be only interested in that. I also find it very interesting that the Getty family has been Knighted by the Queen of England on multiple occasions. This is possible because the Getty family has built a modern day King Solomon temple both above and below ground which is rumored to be 12 floors deep with a major underground functional city. It’s also an rumor that the getty is linked up to another 250 underground bunkers/cities via a hovering tube train.

This is a intercontinental underground government which operates underground bunkers at Dulce base, Denver airport, Montauk, Area 51 and more. These people are said to operate under Magna Carta but there is two versions – A noble and common folk which hides the true knowledge like many mystery schools do to this very day. There are many high ranking elites and celebrities/politicians which happen to have houses very close located to the getty, it’s most likely those houses are hooked up to the underground. The playboy mansion is only 4 mile away from the getty…. hmm.. (That’s another post)

Now let’s talk more about the interesting features of the getty. Think it as a Noah Ark of saving art work, the real crazy stuff is below ground out of the eyes of the common folks. Of all people, The Vatican keeps an extensive collection of art in the bunker. This place has security and cameras like it’s Fort Knox. Many of the security guards are armed and buff like they were retired military/black ops. They would say well the security is needed because its a repository of western culture. Everything is covered in marble, gold plated and the outside building has 4inch thick travertine; natural ballistic armor.

It’s also very interesting that to note it took a long time to build and was way over budget much like Denver airport. It was also noted that at the time it was the largest continuous concrete pour of a foundation. Now if you have ever been there or seen videos/pics you cant park anywhere close to the place, you have to take a tram which goes up a steep incline from parking garage which gives you a good idea how deep the structure really is.

Inside the building you will find many hallways, many doors and other things which point to this place was built like a fortress on purpose since it would be easy to hide or use secret hallways to hide and move if the place ever got stormed. There is also a huge elevator which could fit a tank inside, this is assumed to go down deep, possibly 1 mile or more. During the tour a nuclear blast door can be seen, nor do they call or allow anyone to call it as such.

According to rumors the getty has a full stocked armory on property filled with m16 rifles. So what could they be hiding/protecting in that place other than the precocious art work? Well there was a remote viewer who got a glimpse of the bunker and this is where it gets weird. But before Ill provide some simple proof that the bunkers are connected. Prince Andrew flew to Edwards air base, then took the secret tube train to the getty. (Ill post the info at the end of post)

The remote viewer from NY shared some shocking info with a getty investigator many years ago. These elite look down on those who don’t have these skills. The getty knew someone remote viewed the facility. The reason they knew is because the first floor of the bunker is said to have 200 psychic’s who are there to block those from remote viewing the place. The second level is called the ‘spa’ which is said to be a roman style spa with gold and other expensive finishes. (The thing that struck me when I read this was the video posted by Isaac Kappy, of girls in a spa type setting) So not sure what to think that about one. Below that is the multiple floors of this underground city, which is best described as a inverted skyscraper. Blow those multiple levels, is more tube trains to other locations and the 12th/last floor is a satanic temple. The remote viewer said she saw children and homeless being sacrificed, blood on walls and floor.

So does this sound far fetched? Not one bit and I seriously doubt it’s far from the truth. I might have the number of floors wrong? lol but seriously let’s go down the rabbit hole of places which could be connected or others across the USA. Below ill include every interesting piece of history about the Getty family and about the structure which holds the secrets. There many some stuff I missed, research…


American-Born Billionaire GETTY KNIGHTED By QUEEN

March 10, 1998 – American-born billionaire J.Paul Getty Jr. was knighted Tuesday by Queen Elizabeth II, 12 years after first being designated for that honor. Getty, 65, received the title Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in 1986 for services to charity, but was not allowed to fully enjoy its benefits — including being called Sir Paul — because he was not a British citizen.

The oil heir was granted British citizenship in December, 26 years after he settled there, clearing the way for Tuesday’s ceremony at Buckingham Palace.

“When I heard the national anthem played, I felt very proud to be British — it’s my national anthem now,” Getty said.

“The queen said, `Now you can use your title. Isn’t that nice?’ It means a great deal to me. I am proud to be a subject of Her Majesty.”

Getty is considered Britain’s most generous philanthropist. His donations, to causes including the National Gallery, are thought to have totaled more than $200 million.

Asked why he was such an Anglophile, Getty replied: “I love Britain’s way of life. I love its people. I love its history and I love its future.”


Getty Family History:

Currently Forbes lists the Getty’s as the 56th richest family in America. They count 28 members in the sprawling family, with a dynasty spanning several generations. In 2015 they estimated the Getty’s have a net worth of $5.4 billion (£3.7 billion). Despite their massive wealth the family has been plagued by tragedies over the years.

J. Paul Getty was married five times and had five sons; George Franklin Getty II, Jean Ronald Getty, John Paul Getty Jnr, Gordon Getty and Timothy Ware Getty.

In 1957 he was named by Fortune magazine as the richest living American, and in 1966 the Guinness Book of Records named his as the world’s richest private citizen, with an estimated worth of $1.2 billion. At the time of his death, in 1976, he is thought to have been worth $6 billion.

An avid collector, his penchant for antiquities and art was later displayed in the J. Paul Getty Museum, in LA, and he left around $661 million to the museum after his death.

He also set up the J. Paul Getty Trust in 1953, the world’s wealthiest art institution, which operates The Getty Center, The Getty Villa and the Getty Foundation, the Getty Research Institute, and the Getty Conservation Institute.

Gordon Getty – Born in 1933, he is fourth son of J. Paul Getty and has seven children.

He is a composer, investor and philanthropist. After J. Paul Getty’s death in 1976, Gordon assumed control of Getty’s $3 billion (£2.1 billion) trust.

According to Forbes 400, in September 2011 his net worth was $2 billion (£1.4 billion), ranking him number 212 on the list of wealthy Americans.

One of his sons, Andrew, tragically died aged just 47 in 2015.

John Paul Getty Jnr – Out of his five children John Paul Getty Jnr (1932-2003) is one of the most well known.

The third of five sons, during his life he was one of the richest men in the world, and also had five children, two boys and three girls.

He was married twice and collected books, and had close ties with the UK.

In 1986 he was awarded an honorary knighthood and became Sir John Paul Getty, for services ranging from art to the Tories.

He became a British citizen in 1997.

Mark Getty – His youngest son Mark was born in 1960, and is the founder of Getty Images, a global photo agency.

He was awarded an honorary knighthood in 2015 for services to arts and philanthropy.

He is a regular name in the Sunday Times Rich List.

John Paul Getty III, is one of the most famous Getty’s and has been the subject of films, TV series and books.

Born in 1956, he was kidnapped aged just 16 in Italy.

Previously toying with the idea of staging a kidnapping to extract funds from his rich grandfather, J. Paul Getty, when a ransom note was received for $17 million (£11.9 million) some family members thought it a ploy.

But months dragged on and his captors cut off his ear and mailed it, along with a piece of his hair, to newspapers, reissuing their demands.

Despite being one of the richest men in the world J. Paul Getty’s infamously refused to pay up.

Eventually, after declining treatment and health, another issue was made for $3.2 million.

He eventually negotiated his release for $2.9 million, and paid $2.2 million – the maximum tax deductible amount – and loaned his son the rest at four per cent interest.

Following his release his life was plagued with addiction problems and he suffered a stroke which left him leaving him quadriplegic, partially blind and unable to speak, and he was severely handicapped for the rest of his life.

He was cared for by his mother, Abigail Harris, until his death in 2011 aged 54.

John Paul Getty III had one son, actor Balthazar Getty, born in 1975.

Balthazar has appeared in films such as Lord of the Flies and Judge Dredd, and in TV shows such as Twin Peaks and Hawaii Five-O.

The married father-of-four is also a musician and is in a band called Ringside.


Introduction to the Getty Museum:

The Getty Center, in Los Angeles, California, is a campus of the Getty Museum and other programs of the Getty Trust. The $1.3 billion Center opened to the public on December 16, 1997 and is well known for its architecture, gardens, and views overlooking Los Angeles. The Center sits atop a hill connected to a visitors’ parking garage which is seven-story deep underground. An automated three-car, cable-pulled hovertrain people mover, the “Getty Center Tram”, takes passengers between the parking garage at the bottom of the hill and the Museum at the top of the hill.

Located in the Brentwood neighborhood of Los Angeles, the Center is one of two locations of the J. Paul Getty Museum and draws 1.8 million visitors annually. (The other location is the Getty Villa in the Pacific Palisades neighborhood of Los Angeles, California.) The Center branch of the Museum features pre-20th-century European paintings, drawings, illuminated manuscripts, sculpture, and decorative arts; and photographs from the 1830s through present day from all over the world. In addition, the Museum’s collection at the Center includes outdoor sculpture displayed on terraces and in gardens and the large Central Garden designed by Robert Irwin. Among the artworks on display is the Vincent Van Gogh painting Irises.

Designed by architect Richard Meier, the campus also houses the Getty Research Institute (GRI), the Getty Conservation Institute, the Getty Foundation, and the J. Paul Getty Trust. The Center’s design included special provisions to address concerns regarding earthquakes and fires.

Originally, the Getty Museum started in J. Paul Getty’s house located in Pacific Palisades in 1954. He expanded the house with a museum wing. In the 1970s, Getty built a replica of an Italian villa on his home’s land to better house his collection, which opened in 1974. After Getty’s death in 1976, the entire property was turned over to the Getty Trust for museum purposes. However, the collection outgrew the site, which has since been renamed the Getty Villa, and management sought a location more accessible to Los Angeles. The purchase of the land upon which the center is located, a campus of 24 acres on a 110-acre site in the Santa Monica Mountains above Interstate 405, surrounded by 600 acres kept in a natural state, was announced in 1983. The top of the hill is 900 feet above sea level, high enough that on a clear day it is possible to see not only the Los Angeles skyline but also the San Bernardino Mountains, and San Gabriel Mountains to the east as well as the Pacific Ocean to the west.

The price tag of the center totaled $733 million which includes $449 million for construction, $115 million for the land and site work, $30 million for fixtures and equipment, and $139 million for insurance, engineers’ and architects’ fees, permits and safety measures, according to Stephen D. Rountree, former director of the Getty’s building program and director of operations and planning for the trust.

Current appraisal for the property fluctuates with the market, but in June 2013 the land and buildings were estimated at $3.853 billion (art not included).

In 1984, Richard Meier was chosen to be the architect of the center. After an extensive conditional-use permit process, construction by the Hathaway Dinwiddie Construction Company began in August 1989. The construction was significantly delayed, with the planned completion date moved from 1988 to 1995 (as of 1990). By 1995, however, the campus was described as only “more than halfway complete”.

The center ultimately opened to the public on December 16, 1997. Although the total project cost was estimated to be $350 million as of 1990, it was later estimated to be $1.3 billion. After the center opened, the villa closed for extensive renovations and reopened on January 28, 2006, to focus on the arts and cultures of ancient Greece, Rome, and Etruria. Currently, the museum displays collections at both the Getty Center and the Getty Villa in Pacific Palisades.

In 2005, after a series of articles in the Los Angeles Times about the spending practices of the Getty Trust and its then-president Dr. Barry Munitz, the California Attorney General conducted an investigation of the Getty Trust and found that no laws had been broken. The trust agreed to appoint an outside monitor to review future expenditures.The Getty Trust experienced financial difficulties in 2008 and 2009 and cut 205 of 1,487 budgeted staff positions to reduce expenses. Although the Getty Trust endowment reached $6.4 billion in 2007, it dropped to $4.5 billion in 2009. The endowment rebounded to $6.2 billion by 2013.

The Museum building consists of a three-level base building that is closed to the public and provides staff workspace and storage areas. Five public, two-story towers on the base are called the North, East, South, West and the Exhibitions Pavilions. The Exhibitions Pavilion acts as the temporary residence for traveling art collections and the Foundation’s artwork for which the permanent pavilions have no room. The permanent collection is displayed throughout the other four pavilions chronologically: the north houses the oldest art while the west houses the newest. The first-floor galleries in each pavilion house light-sensitive art, such as illuminated manuscripts, furniture, or photography. Computer-controlled skylights on the second-floor galleries allow paintings to be displayed in natural light. The second floors are connected by a series of glass-enclosed bridges and open terraces, both of which offer views of the surrounding hillsides and central plaza. Sculpture is also on display at various points outside the buildings, including on various terraces and balconies. The lower level (the highest of the floors in the base) includes a public cafeteria, the terrace cafe, and the photography galleries.


Architecture In-depth:

Meier has exploited the two naturally-occurring ridges (which diverge at a 22.5 degree angle) by overlaying two grids along these axes. These grids serve to define the space of the campus while dividing the import of the buildings on it. Along one axis lie the galleries and along the other axis lie the administrative buildings. Meier emphasized the two competing grids by constructing strong view lines through the campus. The main north-south axis starts with the helipad, then includes a narrow walkway between the auditorium and north buildings, continues past the elevator kiosk to the tram station, through the rotunda, past the walls and support columns of the exhibitions pavilion, and finally the ramp besides the west pavilion and the central garden. Its corresponding east-west visual axis starts with the edge of the scholar’s wing of the Getty Research Institute (GRI), the walkway between the central garden and the GRI, the overlook to the azalea pool in the central garden, the walkway between the central garden and the west pavilion, and finally the north wall of the west pavilion and the courtyard between the south and east pavilions

The main axes of the museum grid that is offset by 22.5 degrees begins with the arrival plaza, carries through the edge of the stairs up to the main entrance, aligns with the columns supporting the rotunda as well as the center point of the rotunda, aligns with travertine benches in the courtyard between the pavilions, includes a narrow walkway between the west and south pavilions, a staircase down to the cactus garden and ends in the garden. The corresponding cross axis starts with the center point of the circle forming the GRI library garden, then passing to the center of the entrance rotunda, and aligning with the south wall of the rotunda building. Although all of the Museum is aligned on these alternative axes, portions of the exhibitions pavilion and the east pavilion are aligned on the true north-south axis as a reminder that both grids are present in the campus.

The primary grid structure is a 30-inch square; most wall and floor elements are 30-inch squares or some derivative thereof. The buildings at the Getty Center are made from concrete and steel with either travertine or aluminium cladding. Around 1,200,000 square feet of travertine was used to build the Center.

Throughout the campus, numerous fountains provide white noise as a background. The initial design has remained intact; however benches and fences have been installed around the plaza fountains to discourage visitors from wading into the pools. Some additional revisions have been made in deference to the Americans with Disabilities Act.

The north promontory is anchored by a circular grass area, which serves as a heliport in case of emergencies, and the south promontory is anchored by a succulent plant and cactus garden. The complex is also encircled by access roads that lead to loading docks and staff parking garages on both the west and east sides of the buildings. The hillside around the complex has been planted with California Live Oak trees.


Preparation for natural disasters:

Earthquakes

Although the Center’s site was thought to have little motion during earthquakes, which are frequent in the Los Angeles area, in 1994, as the Center was being constructed, the Northridge earthquake struck. It caused “disturbing hairline cracks… in the welds and plated joints of the steel framework.” As a result, the steelwork through the site was retrofitted. The Center’s buildings are thought to be able to survive an earthquake of 7.5 magnitude on the Richter scale.

Fires

In the 16 electrical transformers at the Center, silicone fluid is used as a coolant “with less risk of ignition” than hydrocarbon coolant. The native flammable chaparral was removed and fire-resistant poverty weed was added to the slopes around the Center. Each year, a herd of goats is rented to clear brush on the surrounding hills.

At the north end of the Center, a tank with 1,000,000 US gal (3,800,000 l) of water, together with a grass-covered helipad, allow helicopters to collect water. The access ramp from the entry plaza to the Museum was constructed to allow a fire truck to pass over it. Inside the Museum, the sprinkler system is designed to balance “between the potential damage of a fire and the risk of water damage to valuable artwork”.


Art Collection

  • Arii Matamoe (The Royal End) by Paul Gauguin (1892). The Museum’s director, Michael Brand, stated that the purchase of the painting was “one of the key moments in the history of our collection.” The literal translation of the Tahitian words of the title are “noble” and “sleeping eyes”, which implies “death”.
  • Irises by Vincent van Gogh (1889). The Museum purchased the painting in 1990; it had sold for $53.9 million in 1987.
  • Portrait of a Halberdier by Pontormo (1528–1530). When the Museum bought the painting for $35.2 million at an auction in 1989, “the price more than tripled the previous record at auction for an Old Master painting”.
  • A copy of Portrait of Louis XIV, which measures 114 x 62-5/8 inches, by the workshop of Hyacinthe Rigaud (after 1701).
  • Getty’s extensive photograph collection is located on the lower level of the west pavilion.

Getty Oil:

J. Paul Getty incorporated Getty Oil in 1942. He had previously worked in the oil fields of Oklahoma along with his father George Franklin Getty. When George died, he left J. Paul with $500,000 and a projection that he would destroy the family business.

Starting in 1949, J. Paul Getty negotiated a series of lucrative oil leases with Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Gordon Getty and his family inherited a 40% interest in the company when J. Paul Getty died in 1976.

In 1984, after entering into a binding agreement to sell Getty and its 2.3-billion-barrel stockpile of proven oil reserves to Pennzoil, Gordon Getty struck a dramatic deal to sell the company to Texaco.

On November 19, 1985, in the case of Texaco, Inc. v. Pennzoil, Co., Pennzoil won a US$10.53 billion verdict against Texaco in the largest civil verdict in U.S. history as a result of the violation of the binding agreement.

While the reserves were sold, only some of the refineries changed hands, and Getty continued to exist as a downstream entity. Getty gas stations in the Northeast were sold off as a condition of the buyout. The company became known as Getty Petroleum Marketing Inc.

Getty Petroleum Marketing was sold to Lukoil in 2000, and Lukoil sold it to Cambridge Securities LLC in February 2011. Getty Petroleum filed for bankruptcy protection (Chapter 11) on December 5, 2011.

The Australian company Westerhoudt AG, run by Olaf Westerhoudt, acquired the rights to the Getty Oil name in 2007 for an undisclosed amount.

At one point, Getty Oil owned a majority stake of ESPN, before it was sold to ABC in 1984.


Getty Images:

Getty Images, Inc. is a British-American visual media company, with headquarters in Seattle, Washington, United States. It is a supplier of stock images, editorial photography, video and music for business and consumers with an archive of over 200 million assets. It targets three markets—creative professionals (advertising and graphic design), the media (print and online publishing), and corporate (in-house design, marketing and communication departments).

Getty has distribution offices around the world and capitalizes on the Internet for distribution. As Getty has acquired other older photo agencies and archives, it has digitized their collections, enabling online distribution. Getty Images operates a large commercial website that clients use to search and browse for images, purchase usage rights, and download images. Image prices vary according to resolution and type of rights. The company also offers custom photo services for corporate clients.

In 1995, Mark Getty and Chief Executive Officer Jonathan Klein co-founded Getty Investments LLC in London. In September 1997, Getty Communications, as it was called at the time, merged with PhotoDisc, Inc. to form Getty Images. ` Getty Images entered into a partnership with Agence France-Presse (AFP) to market each other’s images.

Getty Images acquired the Michael Ochs Archives in February 2007. The Michael Ochs Archives were described by The New York Times as “the premier source of musician photography in the world”.

In 2008, the private equity firm Hellman & Friedman (H&F) acquired Getty Images for $2.4 billion. In 2012, H&F put Getty up for sale. As of the ensuing sale to Carlyle Group, the company was said to have an archive that included 80 million stills and illustrations. The company was acquired by the Getty family in 2018.

In 2019, Getty Images introduced Market Freeze, simplifying exclusivity of rights-managed images. Later that year, it announced that due to customers’ needs changing, it plans to phase out rights-managed imagery by 2020 in favor of royalty-free images.


Getty Research Institute (GRI):

The Getty Research Institute (GRI) is “dedicated to furthering knowledge and advancing understanding of the visual arts.” Among other holdings, GRI’s research library contains over 900,000 volumes of books, periodicals, and auction catalogs; special collections; and two million photographs of art and architecture. GRI’s other activities include exhibitions, publications, and a residential scholars program. At the Getty Center, GRI is located to the west of the Museum. The round building encircles a landscaped garden and is located to the west of the central garden. The main entrance of GRI is connected by a terrace to the main arrival court of the Museum, with outdoor sculptures placed along the route. GRI has one art gallery on its entrance level that is open to the public.


Other Weird Getty Connections

This is just a mash up of other weird news stories which provide some interesting light on the activities the Getty family is up to. Trafficking goods… That includes guns and antiques as you can read below. But you know damn well they do more than just this:

Update: Found a weird title of this song – Killing Pedophiles at the Getty Museum by Alt Rite https://youtu.be/8OSIRmIFXe8

1,000 Guns Found in Bel-Air Mansion With Getty Ties

In what could easily be mistaken for a plot point in a Hollywood blockbuster, authorities uncovered a 1,000 strong firearm stash in a run-down Bel-Air mansion with ties to the billionaire Getty family, the Los Angeles Times and others reported.

Investigators with the federal Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives joined Los Angeles police in a pre-dawn raid that turned up a range of weapons, from automatic rifles and revolvers to a possible World War II-era submachine gun.

All told, it took 30 investigators more than a dozen hours to clear the cache, which also included ammunition.

Girard Saenz, 57, was in the house at the time of the raid and subsequently arrested on suspicion of breaking a California assault weapons law.

Saenz is the companion of Cynthia Beck—a real estate investor who has children with Gordon Getty, the son of the late oil barron J. Paul Getty—who owns the property that was raided, according to the Los Angeles Times. Getty is an heir to the oil fortune.

“It remains unclear what, if any, connection she has to Wednesday’s events,” the Los Angeles Times said of Beck.

The mansion’s address in Bel-Air—an affluent neighborhood that Hollywood royalty Elizabeth Taylor once called home—made the discovery of the arsenal all the more mysterious. It is about a mile away from where Jay-Z and Beyoncé live and not far from the Playboy Mansion.

Getty Curator Resigns in Wake of Conspiracy Charges

2005 – Marion True, Ph.D., curator of antiquities at the J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles, who is being prosecuted in Italy for allegedly conspiring to purchase illegally excavated antiquities, has resigned (see ANL, 8/30/05). The museum reportedly has agreed to return three of the contested objects to Italy.

According to a museum statement, True, 56, voluntarily retired after museum officials confronted her about the circumstances surrounding a $400,000 loan she had used to purchase a vacation home in Greece ten years ago. “The Getty has determined through its own investigation that Marion True failed to report certain aspects of her Greek house purchase transaction in violation of Getty policy,” the statement says.

True obtained the loan in 1995 through the assistance of two London dealers, Robin Symes and the late Christo Michailidis, who were among the Getty’s biggest suppliers of Greek, Roman and Etruscan antiquities, according to an article in the Los Angeles Times.

Michailidis and Symes introduced True to Athens lawyer Dimitri Peppas, who arranged for the loan through an entity called the Sea Star Corporation, the Times article reports. Harry Stang, True’s attorney in Los Angeles, declined to comment.

The museum declined to elaborate on the policy True had allegedly violated, nor would it comment on internal Getty records cited by the Times that are said to show that museum officials have known about the loan for several years. Interpol in Greece reportedly is investigating the loan.

True is scheduled to stand trial next month in Rome on charges of conspiring to receive 42 antiquities that Italian officials claim were illegally excavated. She was indicted in May, along with dealers Robert E. Hecht Jr. and Giacomo Medici. Medici was convicted last year and sentenced to ten years in prison, but remains free while he appeals.

Reuters reported that the Getty has agreed to return to Italy three of the 42 objects involved in the case. According to the news service, Italy’s culture minister Rocco Buttiglione told the Corriere della Sera newspaper that “the works are returning without an admission of guilt on the part of the Getty, but also without us withdrawing our accusations.”

The objects the Getty has reportedly agreed to return to Italy are a large bowl signed by Asteas, a bronze Etruscan candelabrum and an ancient Greek inscription. The Reuters article states that Buttiglione still seeks the return of the remaining disputed objects. A Getty spokesperson declined to answer questions from ARTnewsletter about the reported agreement.

Prince Andrew sees sights in California

Posted Nov 4, 2000

The prince donned a hard hat and safety glasses Thursday as he toured the Los Angeles construction site of the Walt Disney Concert Hall — a $225 million project scheduled for completion in 2003.

He also attended the opening of Pacific Capital Group’s new headquarters in Beverly Hills. Also on the itinerary: a tour of the seismology lab at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, a visit to Edwards Air Force Base and a trip to the Getty Center, which is featuring an exhibit of Raphael drawings from the Windsor Castle collection.