Nervous System Manipulation by Electromagnetic Fields From Monitors

U.S Patent Number : 6,506,148 —– Created: Jan 14, 2003

Physiological results have been noticed in a human topic in response to stimulation of the pores and skin with weak electromagnetic fields which might be pulsed with sure frequencies close to 1/2 Hz or 2.4 Hz, equivalent to to excite a sensory resonance. Many laptop screens and TV tubes, when displaying pulsed pictures, emit pulsed electromagnetic fields of ample amplitudes to trigger such excitation. It is due to this fact attainable to control the nervous system of a topic by pulsing pictures displayed on a close-by laptop monitor or TV set. For the latter, the picture pulsing could also be imbedded in this system materials, or it might be overlaid by modulating a video stream, both as an RF sign or as a video sign. The picture displayed on a pc monitor could also be pulsed successfully by a easy laptop program. For sure screens, pulsed electromagnetic fields able to thrilling sensory resonances in close by topics could also be generated even because the displayed pictures are pulsed with subliminal depth.

Basic Introduction Above/ Full Text Below


1. A way for manipulating the nervous system of a topic positioned close to a monitor, the monitor emitting an electromagnetic subject when displaying a picture by advantage of the bodily show course of, the topic having a sensory resonance frequency, the tactic comprising: making a video sign for displaying a picture on the monitor, the picture having an depth; modulating the video sign for pulsing the picture depth with a frequency within the vary 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz; and setting the heart beat frequency to the resonance frequency. 

2. A pc program for manipulating the nervous system of a topic positioned close to a monitor, the monitor emitting an electromagnetic subject when displaying a picture by advantage of the bodily show course of, the topic having cutaneous nerves that fireside spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the pc program comprising: a show routine for displaying a picture on the monitor, the picture having an depth; a pulse routine for pulsing the picture depth with a frequency within the vary 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz; and a frequency routine that may be internally managed by the topic, for setting the frequency; whereby the emitted electromagnetic subject is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are uncovered to the pulsed electromagnetic subject, and the spiking patterns of the nerves purchase a frequency modulation. 

3. The laptop program of declare 2, whereby the pulsing has an amplitude and this system additional includes an amplitude routine for management of the amplitude by the topic. 

4. The laptop program of declare 2, whereby the heart beat routine includes: a timing process for timing the pulsing; and an extrapolation process for bettering the accuracy of the timing process. 

5. The laptop program of declare 2, additional comprising a variability routine for introducing variability within the pulsing. 

6. Hardware means for manipulating the nervous system of a topic positioned close to a monitor, the monitor being attentive to a video stream and emitting an electromagnetic subject when displaying a picture by advantage of the bodily show course of, the picture having an depth, the topic having cutaneous nerves that fireside spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the {hardware} means comprising: pulse generator for producing voltage pulses; means, attentive to the voltage pulses, for modulating the video stream to pulse the picture depth; whereby the emitted electromagnetic subject is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are uncovered to the pulsed electromagnetic subject, and the spiking patterns of the nerves purchase a frequency modulation. 

7. The {hardware} technique of declare 6, whereby the video stream is a composite video sign that has a pseudo-dc degree, and the means for modulating the video stream comprise means for pulsing the pseudo-dc degree. 

8. The {hardware} technique of declare 6, whereby the video stream is a tv broadcast sign, and the means for modulating the video stream comprise means for frequency wobbling of the tv broadcast sign. 

9. The {hardware} technique of declare 6, whereby the monitor has a brightness adjustment terminal, and the means for modulating the video stream comprise a connection from the heart beat generator to the brightness adjustment terminal. 

10. A supply of video stream for manipulating the nervous system of a topic positioned close to a monitor, the monitor emitting an electromagnetic subject when displaying a picture by advantage of the bodily show course of, the topic having cutaneous nerves that fireside spontaneously and have spiking patterns, the supply of video stream comprising: means for outlining a picture on the monitor, the picture having an depth; and means for subliminally pulsing the picture depth with a frequency within the vary 0.1 Hz to 15 Hz; whereby the emitted electromagnetic subject is pulsed, the cutaneous nerves are uncovered to the pulsed electromagnetic subject, and the spiking patterns of the nerves purchase a frequency modulation. 

11. The supply of video stream of declare 10 whereby the supply is a recording medium that has recorded information, and the means for subliminally pulsing the picture depth comprise an attribute of the recorded information. 

12. The supply of video stream of declare 10 whereby the supply is a pc program, and the means for subliminally pulsing the picture depth comprise a pulse routine. 

13. The supply of video stream of declare 10 whereby the supply is a recording of a bodily scene, and the means for subliminally pulsing the picture depth comprise: pulse generator for producing voltage pulses; mild supply for illuminating the scene, the sunshine supply having an influence degree; and modulation means, attentive to the voltage pulses, for pulsing the facility degree. 

14. The supply of video stream of declare 10, whereby the supply is a DVD, the video stream includes a luminance sign and a chrominance sign, and the means for subliminal pulsing of the picture depth comprise means for pulsing the luminance sign.



The invention pertains to the stimulation of the human nervous system by an electromagnetic subject utilized externally to the physique. A neurological impact of exterior electrical fields has been talked about by Wiener (1958), in a dialogue of the bunching of mind waves via nonlinear interactions. The electrical subject was organized to supply “a direct electrical driving of the brain”. Wiener describes the sphere as arrange by a 10 Hz alternating voltage of 400 V utilized in a room between ceiling and floor. Brennan (1992) describes in U.S. Pat. No. 5,169,380 an equipment for assuaging disruptions in circadian rythms of a mammal, through which an alternating electrical subject is utilized throughout the pinnacle of the topic by two electrodes positioned a brief distance from the pores and skin. 

A tool involving a subject electrode in addition to a contact electrode is the “Graham Potentializer” talked about by Hutchison (1991). This rest machine makes use of movement, mild and sound in addition to an alternating electrical subject utilized primarily to the pinnacle. The contact electrode is a metallic bar in Ohmic contact with the naked ft of the topic, and the sphere electrode is a hemispherical metallic headpiece positioned a number of inches from the topic’s head. 

In these three electrical stimulation strategies the exterior electrical subject is utilized predominantly to the pinnacle, in order that electrical currents are induced within the mind within the bodily method ruled by electrodynamics. Such currents could be largely averted by making use of the sphere to not the pinnacle, however slightly to pores and skin areas away from the pinnacle. Certain cutaneous receptors might then be stimulated and they might present a sign enter into the mind alongside the pure pathways of afferent nerves. It has been discovered that, certainly, physiological results could be induced on this method by very weak electrical fields, if they’re pulsed with a frequency close to 1/2 Hz. The noticed results embrace ptosis of the eyelids, rest, drowziness, the sensation of strain at a centered spot on the decrease fringe of the forehead, seeing shifting patterns of dark purple and greenish yellow with the eyes closed, a tonic smile, a tense feeling within the abdomen, sudden unfastened stool, and sexual pleasure, relying on the exact frequency used, and the pores and skin space to which the sphere is utilized. The sharp frequency dependence suggests involvement of a resonance mechanism. 

It has been discovered that the resonance could be excited not solely by externally utilized pulsed electrical fields, as mentioned in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,782,874, 5,899,922, 6,081,744, and 6,167,304, but in addition by pulsed magnetic fields, as described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,935,054 and 6,238,333, by weak warmth pulses utilized to the pores and skin, as mentioned in U.S. Pat. Nos. 5,800,481 and 6,091,994, and by subliminal acoustic pulses, as described in U.S. Pat. No. 6,017,302. Since the resonance is worked up via sensory pathways, it’s referred to as a sensory resonance. In addition to the resonance close to 1/2 Hz, a sensory resonance has been discovered close to 2.4 Hz. The latter is characterised by the slowing of sure cortical processes, as mentioned within the ‘481, ‘922, ‘302, ‘744, ‘944, and ‘304 patents. 

The excitation of sensory resonances via weak warmth pulses utilized to the pores and skin offers a clue about what’s going on neurologically. Cutaneous temperature-sensing receptors are identified to fireside spontaneously. These nerves spike considerably randomly round a median price that depends upon pores and skin temperature. Weak warmth pulses delivered to the pores and skin in periodic trend will due to this fact trigger a slight frequency modulation (fm) within the spike patterns generated by the nerves. Since stimulation via different sensory modalities leads to comparable physiological results, it’s believed that frequency modulation of spontaneous afferent neural spiking patterns happens there as nicely. 

It is instructive to use this notion to the stimulation by weak electrical subject pulses administered to the pores and skin. The externally generated fields induce electrical present pulses within the underlying tissue, however the present density is far too small for firing an in any other case quiescent nerve. However, in experiments with adapting stretch receptors of the crayfish, Terzuolo and Bullock (1956) have noticed that very small electrical fields can suffice for modulating the firing of already lively nerves. Such a modulation might happen within the electrical subject stimulation below dialogue. 

Further understanding could also be gained by contemplating the electrical expenses that accumulate on the pores and skin because of the induced tissue currents. Ignoring thermodynamics, one would count on the amassed polarization expenses to be confined strictly to the outer floor of the pores and skin. But cost density is precipitated by a slight extra in constructive or adverse ions, and thermal movement distributes the ions via a skinny layer. This implies that the externally utilized electrical subject truly penetrates a brief distance into the tissue, as an alternative of stopping abruptly on the outer pores and skin floor. In this fashion a substantial fraction of the utilized subject could also be dropped at bear on some cutaneous nerve endings, so {that a} slight modulation of the sort famous by Terzuolo and Bullock might certainly happen. 

The talked about physiological results are noticed solely when the energy of the electrical subject on the pores and skin lies in a sure vary, referred to as the efficient depth window. There is also a bulk impact, in that weaker fields suffice when the sphere is utilized to a bigger pores and skin space. These results are mentioned intimately within the ‘922 patent. 

Since the spontaneous spiking of the nerves is slightly random and the frequency modulation induced by the pulsed subject may be very shallow, the sign to noise ratio (S/N) for the fm sign contained within the spike trains alongside the afferent nerves is so small as to make restoration of the fm sign from a single nerve fiber impossibile. But software of the sphere over a big pores and skin space causes simultaneous stimulation of many cutaneous nerves, and the fm modulation is then coherent from nerve to nerve. Therefore, if the afferent indicators are by some means summed within the mind, the fm modulations add whereas the spikes from totally different nerves combine and interlace. In this fashion the S/N could be elevated by acceptable neural processing. The matter is mentioned intimately within the ‘874 patent. Another enhance in sensitivity is because of involving a resonance mechanism, whereby appreciable neural circuit oscillations may end up from weak excitations. 

An simply detectable physiological impact of an excited 1/2 Hz sensory resonance is ptosis of the eyelids. As mentioned within the ‘922 patent, the ptosis check entails first closing the eyes about half approach. Holding this eyelid place, the eyes are rolled upward, whereas giving up voluntary management of the eyelids. The eyelid place is then decided by the state of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, the strain excerted on the eyeballs by the partially closed eyelids will increase parasympathetic exercise. The eyelid place thereby turns into considerably labile, as manifested by a slight flutter. The labile state is delicate to very small shifts in autonomic state. The ptosis influences the extent to which the pupil is hooded by the eyelid, and thus how a lot mild is admitted to the attention. Hence, the depth of the ptosis is seen by the topic, and could be graded on a scale from Zero to 10. 

In the preliminary levels of the excitation of the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance, a downward drift is detected within the ptosis frequency, outlined because the stimulation frequency for which most ptosis is obtained. This drift is believed to be precipitated by modifications within the chemical milieu of the resonating neural circuits. It is assumed that the resonance causes perturbations of chemical concentrations someplace within the mind, and that these perturbations unfold by diffusion to close by resonating circuits. This impact, referred to as “chemical detuning”, could be so robust that ptosis is misplaced altogether when the stimulation frequency is stored fixed within the preliminary levels of the excitation. Since the stimulation then falls considerably out of tune, the resonance decreases in amplitude and chemical detuning finally diminishes. This causes the ptosis frequency to shift again up, in order that the stimulation is extra in tune and the ptosis can develop once more. As a outcome, for mounted stimulation frequencies in a sure vary, the ptosis slowly cycles with a frequency of a number of minutes. The matter is mentioned within the ‘302 patent. 

The stimulation frequencies at which particular physiological results happen rely considerably on the autonomic nervous system state, and possibly on the endocrine state as nicely. 

Weak magnetic fields which might be pulsed with a sensory resonance frequency can induce the identical physiological results as pulsed electrical fields. Unlike the latter nevertheless, the magnetic fields penetrate organic tissue with practically undiminished energy. Eddy currents within the tissue drive electrical expenses to the pores and skin, the place the cost distributions are topic to thermal smearing in a lot the identical approach as in electrical subject stimulation, in order that the identical physiological results develop. Details are mentioned within the ‘054 patent. 


Computer monotors and TV screens could be made to emit weak low-frequency electromagnetic fields merely by pulsing the depth of displayed pictures. Experiments have proven that the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance could be excited on this method in a topic close to the monitor. The 2.4 Hz sensory resonance can be excited on this trend. Hence, a TV monitor or laptop monitor can be utilized to control the nervous system of close by individuals. 

The implementations of the invention are tailored to the supply of video stream that drives the monitor, be it a pc program, a TV broadcast, a video tape or a digital video disc (DVD). 

For a pc monitor, the picture pulses could be produced by an acceptable laptop program. The pulse frequency could also be managed via keyboard enter, in order that the topic can tune to a person sensory resonance frequency. The pulse amplitude could be managed as nicely on this method. A program written in Visual Basic(R) is especially appropriate to be used on computer systems that run the Windows 95(R) or Windows 98(R) working system. The construction of such a program is described. Production of periodic pulses requires an correct timing process. Such a process is constructed from the GetTimeCount perform obtainable within the Application Program Interface (API) of the Windows working system, along with an extrapolation process that improves the timing accuracy. 

Pulse variability could be launched via software program, for the aim of thwarting habituation of the nervous system to the sphere stimulation, or when the exact resonance frequency is just not identified. The variability could also be a pseudo-random variation inside a slender interval, or it will probably take the type of a frequency or amplitude sweep in time. The pulse variability could also be below management of the topic. 

The program that causes a monitor to show a pulsing picture could also be run on a distant laptop that’s related to the consumer laptop by a hyperlink; the latter might partly belong to a community, which will be the Internet. 

For a TV monitor, the picture pulsing could also be inherent within the video stream because it flows from the video supply, or else the stream could also be modulated equivalent to to overlay the pulsing. In the primary case, a dwell TV broadcast could be organized to have the function imbedded merely by barely pulsing the illumination of the scene that’s being broadcast. This methodology can after all even be utilized in making films and recording video tapes and DVDs. 

Video tapes could be edited equivalent to to overlay the pulsing by technique of modulating {hardware}. A easy modulator is mentioned whereby the luminance sign of composite video is pulsed with out affecting the chroma sign. The similar impact could also be launched on the client finish, by modulating the video stream that’s produced by the video supply. A DVD could be edited via software program, by introducing pulse-like variations within the digital RGB indicators. Image depth pulses could be overlaid onto the analog part video output of a DVD participant by modulating the luminance sign part. Before coming into the TV set, a tv sign could be modulated equivalent to to trigger pulsing of the picture depth by technique of a variable delay line that’s related to a pulse generator. 

Certain screens can emit electromagnetic subject pulses that excite a sensory resonance in a close-by topic, via picture pulses which might be so weak as to be subliminal. This is unlucky because it opens a approach for mischievous software of the invention, whereby individuals are uncovered unknowingly to manipulation of their nervous techniques for another person’s functions. Such software could be unethical and is after all not advocated. It is talked about right here as a way to alert the general public to the potential of covert abuse that will happen whereas being on-line, or whereas watching TV, a video, or a DVD. 


Computer screens and TV screens emit electromagnetic fields. Part of the emission happens on the low frequencies at which displayed pictures are altering. For occasion, a rythmic pulsing of the depth of a picture causes electromagnetic subject emission on the pulse frequency, with a energy proportional to the heart beat amplitude. The subject is briefly known as “screen emission”. In discussing this impact, any half or all what’s displayed on the monitor display screen is named a picture. A monitor of the cathode ray tube (CRT) sort has three electron beams, one for every of the essential colours pink, inexperienced, and blue. The depth of a picture is right here outlined as 

the place the integral extends over the picture, and 

jr, jg, and jb being the electrical present densities within the pink, inexperienced, and blue electron beams on the floor space dA of the picture on the display screen. The present densities are to be taken within the distributed electron beam mannequin, the place the discreteness of pixels and the raster movement of the beams are ignored, and the again of the monitor display screen is regarded as irradiated by diffuse electron beams. The beam present densities are then features of the coordinates x and y over the display screen. The mannequin is suitable since we have an interest within the electromagnetic subject emision precipitated by picture pulsing with the very low frequencies of sensory resonances, whereas the emissions with the a lot greater horizontal and vertical sweep frequencies are of no concern. For a CRT the depth of a picture is expressed in millamperes. 

For a liquid crystal show (LCD), the present densities within the definition of picture depth are to get replaced by driving voltages, multiplied by the aperture ratio of the machine. For an LCD, picture intensities are thus expressed in volts. 

It might be proven that for a CRT or LCD display screen emissions are precipitated by fluctuations in picture depth. In composite video nevertheless, depth as outlined above is just not a main sign function, however luminance Y is. For any pixel one has 

the place R, G, and B are the intensities of the pixel respectively in pink, inexperienced and blue, normalized equivalent to to vary from Zero to 1. The definition (3) was offered by the Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE), as a way to account for brightness variations at totally different colours, as perceived by the human visible system. In composite video the hue of the pixel is decided by the chroma sign or chrominance, which has the elements R-Y and B-Y It follows that pulsing pixel luminance whereas conserving the hue mounted is equal to pulsing the pixel depth, as much as an amplitude issue. This truth might be relied upon when modulating a video stream equivalent to to overlay picture depth pulses. 

It seems that the display screen emission has a multipole enlargement whereby each monopole and dipole contributions are proportional to the speed of change of the depth I of (1). The greater order multipole contributions are proportional to the speed of change of moments of the present density j over the picture, however since these contributions fall off quickly with distance, they don’t seem to be of sensible significance within the current context. Pulsing the depth of a picture might contain totally different pulse amplitudes, frequencies, or phases for various components of the picture. Any or all of those options could also be below topic management. 

The query arises whether or not the display screen emission could be robust sufficient to excite sensory resonances in individuals positioned at regular viewing distances from the monitor. This seems to be the case, as proven by sensory resonance experiments and independently by measuring the energy of the emitted electrical subject pulses and evaluating the outcomes with the efficient depth window as explored in earlier work. 

One-half Hertz sensory resonance experiments have been performed with the topic positioned a minimum of at regular viewing distance from a 15″ laptop monitor that was pushed by a pc program written in Visual Basic(R), model 6.0 (VB6). The program produces a pulsed picture with uniform luminance and hue over the complete display screen, aside from just a few small management buttons and textual content containers. In VB6, display screen pixel colours are decided by integers R, G, and B, that vary from Zero to 255, and set the contributions to the pixel colour made by the essential colours pink, inexperienced, and blue. For a CRT-type monitor, the pixel intensities for the first colours might depend upon the RGB values in a nonlinear method that might be mentioned. In the VB6 program the RGB values are modulated by small pulses .DELTA.R, .DELTA.G, .DELTA.B, with a frequency that may be chosen by the topic or is swept in a predetermined method. In the sensory resonance experiments talked about above, the ratios .DELTA.R/R, .DELTA.G/G, and .DELTA.B/B had been at all times smaller than 0.02, in order that the picture pulses are fairly weak. For sure frequencies close to 1/2 Hz, the topic skilled physiological results which might be identified to accompany the excitation of the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance as talked about within the Background Section. Moreover, the measured subject pulse amplitudes fall inside the efficient depth window for the 1/2 Hz resonance, as explored in earlier experiments and mentioned within the ‘874, ‘744, ‘922, and ‘304 patents. Other experiments have proven that the two.4 Hz sensory resonance could be exited as nicely by display screen emissions from screens that show pulsed pictures. 

These outcomes affirm that, certainly, the nervous system of a topic could be manipulated via electromagnetic subject pulses emitted by a close-by CRT or LCD monitor which shows pictures with pulsed depth. 

The numerous implementations of the invention are tailored to the totally different sources of video stream, equivalent to video tape, DVD, a pc program, or a TV broadcast via free house or cable. In all of those implementations, the topic is uncovered to the pulsed electromagnetic subject that’s generated by the monitor as the results of picture depth pulsing. Certain cutaneous nerves of the topic exhibit spontaneous spiking in patterns which, though slightly random, comprise sensory info a minimum of within the type of common frequency. Some of those nerves have receptors that reply to the sphere stimulation by altering their common spiking frequency, in order that the spiking patterns of those nerves purchase a frequency modulation, which is conveyed to the mind. The modulation could be significantly efficient if it has a frequency at or close to a sensory resonance frequency. Such frequencies are anticipated to lie within the vary from 0.1 to 15 Hz. 

An embodiment of the invention tailored to a VCR is proven in FIG. 1, the place a topic Four is uncovered to a pulsed electrical subject Three and a pulsed magnetic subject 39 which might be emitted by a monitor 2, labeled “MON”, as the results of pulsing the depth of the displayed picture. The picture is right here generated by a video casette recorder 1, labeled “VCR”, and the pulsing of the picture depth is obtained by modulating the composite video sign from the VCR output. This is finished by a video modulator 5, labeled “VM”, which responds to the sign from the heart beat generator 6, labeled “GEN”. The frequency and amplitude of the picture pulses could be adjusted with the frequency management 7 and amplitude management 8. Frequency and amplitude changes could be made by the topic. 

The circuit of the video modulator 5 of FIG. 1 is proven in FIG. 2, the place the video amplifiers 11 and 12 course of the composite video sign that enters on the enter terminal 13. The degree of the video sign is modulated slowly by injecting a small bias present on the inverting enter 17 of the primary amplifier 11. This present is precipitated by voltage pulses provided on the modulation enter 16, and could be adjusted via the potentiometer 15. Since the noninverting enter of the amplifier is grounded, the inverting enter 17 is stored primarily at floor potential, in order that the bias present is is just not influenced by the video sign. The inversion of the sign by the primary amplifier 11 is undone by the second amplifier 12. The positive aspects of the amplifiers are chosen equivalent to to provide a unity general acquire. A slowly various present injected on the inverting enter 17 causes a gradual shift within the “pseudo-dc” degree of the composite video sign, right here outlined because the short-term common of the sign. Since the pseudo-dc degree of the chroma sign part determines the luminance, the latter is modulated by the injected present pulses. The chroma sign is just not affected by the gradual modulation of the pseudodc degree, since that sign is decided by the amplitude and section with respect to the colour service which is locked to the colour burst. The impact on the sync pulses and colour bursts is of no consequence both if the injected present pulses are very small, as they’re in apply. The modulated composite video sign, obtainable on the output 14 in FIG. 2, will thus exhibit a modulated luminance, whereas the chroma sign is unchanged. In the sunshine of the foregoing dialogue about luminance and depth, it follows that the modulator of FIG. 2 causes a pulsing of the picture depth I. It stays to provide an instance how the heart beat sign on the modulation enter 16 could also be obtained. FIG. Three reveals a pulse generator that’s appropriate for this function, whereby the RC timer 21 (Intersil ICM7555) is connected for astable operation and produces a sq. wave voltage with a frequency that’s decided by capacitor 22 and potentiometer 23. The timer 21 is powered by a battery 26, managed by the swap 27. The sq. wave voltage at output 25 drives the LED 24, which can be used for monitoring of the heart beat frequency, and in addition serves as energy indicator. The pulse output could also be rounded in methods which might be well-known within the artwork. In the setup of FIG. 1, the output of VCR 1 is related to the video enter 13 of FIG. 2, and the video output 14 is related to the monitor 2 of FIG. 1. 

In the popular embodiment of the invention, the picture depth pulsing is precipitated by a pc program. As proven in FIG. 4, monitor 2, labeled “MON”, is related to laptop 31 labeled “COMPUTER”, which runs a program that produces a picture on the monitor and causes the picture depth to be pulsed. The topic Four can present enter to the pc via the keyboard 32 that’s related to the pc by the connection 33. This enter might contain changes of the frequency or the amplitude or the variability of the picture depth pulses. In specific, the heart beat frequency could be set to a sensory resonance frequency of the topic for the aim of thrilling the resonance. 

The construction of a pc program for pulsing picture depth is proven in FIG. 6. The program could also be written in Visual Basic(R) model 6.0 (VB6), which entails the graphics interface acquainted from the Windows(R) working system. The pictures seem as types outfitted with consumer controls equivalent to command buttons and scroll bars, along with information shows equivalent to textual content containers. A compiled VB6 program is an executable file. When activated, this system declares variables and features to be referred to as from a dynamic hyperlink library (DLL) that’s connected to the working system; an preliminary type load is carried out as nicely. The latter includes setting the display screen colour as specified by integers R, G, and B within the vary Zero to 255, as talked about above. In FIG. 6, the preliminary setting of the display screen colour is labeled as 50. Another motion of the shape load routine is the computation 51 of the sine perform at eight equally spaced factors, I=Zero to 7, across the unit circle. These values are wanted when modulating the RGB numbers. Unfortunately, the sine perform is distorted by the rounding to integer RGB values that happens within the VB6 program. The picture is chosen to fill as a lot of the display screen space as attainable, and it has spatially uniform luminance and hue. 

The type showing on the monitor shows a command button for beginning and stopping the picture pulsing, along with scroll bars 52 and 53 respectively for adjustment of the heart beat frequency F and the heart beat amplitude A. These pulses might be initiated by a system timer which is activated upon the elapse of a preset time interval. However, timers in VB6 are too inaccurate for the aim of offering the eight RGB adjustment factors in every pulse cycle. An enchancment could be obtained by utilizing the GetTickCount perform that’s obtainable within the Application Program Interface (API) of Windows 95(R) and Windows 98(R). The GetTickCount perform returns the system time that has elapsed since beginning Windows, expressed in milliseconds. User activation of the beginning button 54 offers a tick rely TN via request 55 and units the timer interval to TT miliseconds, in step 56. TT was beforehand calculated within the frequency routine that’s activated by altering the frequency, denoted as step 52. 

Since VB6 is an event-driven program, the circulate chart for this system falls into disjoint items. Upon setting the timer interval to TT in step 56, the timer runs within the background whereas this system might execute subroutines equivalent to adjustment of pulse frequency or amplitude. Upon elapse of the timer interval TT, the timer subroutine 57 begins execution with request 58 for a tick rely, and in 59 an improve is computed of the time TN for the following level at which the RGB values are to be adjusted. In step 59 the timer is turned off, to be reactivated later in step 67. Step 59 additionally resets the parameter CR which performs a task within the extrapolation process 61 and the situation 60. For ease of understanding at this level, it’s best to faux that the motion of 61 is just to get a tick rely, and to think about the loop controled by situation 60 whereas conserving CR equal to zero. The loop would terminate when the tick rely M reaches or exceeds the time TN for the following section level, at which period this system ought to modify the picture depth via steps 63-65. For now step 62 is to be ignored additionally, because it has to do with the precise extrapolation process 61. The increments to the display screen colours R1, G1, and B1 on the new section level are computed in keeping with the sine perform, utilized with the amplitude A that was set by the consumer in step 53. The quantity I that labels the section level is incremented by unity in step 65, but when this leads to I=Eight the worth is reset to zero in 66. Finally, the timer is reactivated in step 67, initiating a brand new 1/8-cycle step within the periodic development of RGB changes. 

A program written on this approach would exhibit a big jitter within the instances at which the RGB values are modified. This is because of the lumpiness within the tick counts returned by the GetTickCount perform. The lumpiness could also be studied individually by operating a easy loop with C=GetTickCount, adopted by writing the outcome C to a file. Inspection reveals that C has jumped each 14 or 15 milliseconds, between lengthy stretches of fixed values. Since for a 1/2 Hz picture depth modulation the 1/8-cycle section factors are 250 ms aside, the lumpiness of 14 or 15 ms within the tick rely would trigger appreciable inaccuracy. The full extrapolation process 61 is launched as a way to diminish the jitter to acceptable ranges. The process works by refining the heavy-line staircase perform proven in FIG. 8, utilizing the slope RR of a current staircase step to precisely decide the loop rely 89 at which the loop controled by 60 must be exited. Details of the extrapolation process are proven in FIG. 7 and illustrated in FIG. 8. The process begins at 70 with each flags off, and CR=0, due to the task in 59 or 62 in FIG. 6. A tick rely M is obtained at 71, and the remaining time MR to the following section level is computed in 72. Conditions 77 and 73 will not be glad and due to this fact handed vertically within the circulate chart, in order that solely the delay block 74 and the assignments 75 are executed. Condition 60 of FIG. 6 is checked and located to be glad, in order that the extrapolation process is reentered. The course of is repeated till the situation 73 is met when the remaining time MR jumps down via the 15 ms degree, proven in FIG. Eight because the transition 83. The situation 73 then directs the logic circulate to the assignments 76, through which the quantity DM labeled by 83 is computed, and FLG1 is ready. The computation of DM is required for locating the slope RR of the straight-line component 85. One additionally wants the “Final LM” 86, which is the variety of loops traversed from step 83 to the following downward step 84, right here proven to cross the MR=Zero axis. The last LM is decided after repeatedly incrementing LM via the facet loop entered from the FLG1=1 situation 77, which is now glad since FLG1 was set in step 76. At the transition 84 the situation 78 is met, in order that the assignments 79 are executed. This consists of computation of the slope RR of the road component 85, setting FLG2, and resetting FLG1. From right here on, the extrapolation process increments CR in steps of RR whereas skipping tick counts till situation 60 of FIG. 6 is violated, the loop is exited, and the RGB values are adjusted. 

A delay block 74 is used as a way to stretch the time required for traversing the extrapolation process. The block could be any computation intensive subroutine equivalent to repeated calculations of tangent and arc tangent features. 

As proven in step 56 of FIG. 6, the timer interval TT is ready to 4/10 of the time TA from one RGB adjustment level to the following. Since the timer runs within the background, this association offers a possibility for execution of different processes equivalent to consumer adjustment of frequency or amplitude of the pulses. 

The adjustment of the frequency and different pulse parameters of the picture depth modulation could be made internally, i.e., inside the operating program. Such inner management is to be distinguished from the exterior management offered, as an illustration, in display screen savers. In the latter, the frequency of animation could be modified by the consumer, however solely after having exited the display screen saver program. Specifically, in Windows 95(R) or Windows 98(R), to alter the animation frequency requires stopping the display screen saver execution by shifting the mouse, whereafter the frequency could also be adjusted via the management panel. The requirement that the management be inner units the current program aside from so-called banners as nicely. 

The program could also be run on a distant laptop that’s linked to the consumer laptop, as illustrated in FIG. 9. Although the monitor 2, labeled “MON”, is related to the pc 31′, labeled “COMPUTER”, this system that pulses the pictures on the monitor 2 runs on the remoter laptop 90, labeled “REMOTE COMPUTER”, which is related to laptop 31′ via a hyperlink 91 which can partly belong to a community. The community might comprise the Internet 92. 

The monitor of a tv set emits an electromagnetic subject in a lot the identical approach as a pc monitor. Hence, a TV could also be used to supply display screen emissions for the aim of nervous system manipulation. FIG. 5 reveals such an association, the place the pulsing of the picture depth is achieved by inducing a small slowly pulsing shift within the frequency of the RF sign that enters from the antenna. This course of is right here referred to as “frequency wobbling” of the RF sign. In FM TV, a slight gradual frequency wobble of the RF sign produces a pseudo-dc sign degree fluctuation within the composite video sign, which in flip causes a slight depth fluctuation of the picture displayed on the monitor in the identical method as mentioned above for the modulator of FIG. 2. The frequency wobbling is induced by the wobbler 44 of FIG. 5 labeled “RFM”, which is positioned within the antenna line 43. The wobbler is pushed by the heart beat generator 6, labeled “GEN”. The topic can modify the frequency and the amplitude of the wobble via the tuning management 7 and the amplitude management 41. FIG. 10 reveals a block diagram of the frequency wobbler circuit that employs a variable delay line 94, labelled “VDL”. The delay is decided by the sign from pulse generator 6, labelled “GEN”. The frequency of the pulses could be adjusted with the tuning management 7. The amplitude of the pulses is decided by the unit 98, labelled “MD”, and could be adjusted with the amplitude management 41. Optionally, the enter to the delay line could also be routed via a preprocessor 93, labelled “PRP”, which can comprise a selective RF amplifier and down converter; a complimentary up conversion ought to then be carried out on the delay line output by a postprocessor 95, labelled “POP”. The output 97 is to be related to the antenna terminal of the TV set. 

The motion of the variable delay line 94 could also be understood as follows. Let periodic pulses with interval L be introduced on the enter. For a hard and fast delay the pulses would emerge on the output with the identical interval L. Actually, the time delay T is diverse slowly, in order that it will increase roughly by LdT/dt between the emergence of consecutive pulses on the machine output. The pulse interval is thus elevated roughly by 

In phrases of the frequency .intg., Eq. (4) implies roughly 

For sinusoidal delay T(t) with amplitude b and frequency g, one has 

which reveals the frequency wobbling. The approximation is sweet for gb<<1, which is glad in apply. The relative frequency shift amplitude that’s required for efficient picture depth pulses may be very small in comparison with unity. For a pulse frequency g of the order of 1 Hz, the delay might need to be of the order of a millisecond. To accomodate such lengthy delay values, the delay line might need to be carried out as a digital machine. To achieve this is nicely inside the current artwork. In that case it’s pure to additionally select digital implementations for the heart beat generator 6 and the heart beat amplitude controller 98, both as {hardware} or as software program. 

Pulse variability could also be launched for assuaging the necessity for exact tuning to a resonance frequency. This could also be necessary when sensory resonance frequencies will not be exactly identified, due to the variation amongst people, or as a way to address the frequency drift that outcomes from chemical detuning that’s mentioned within the ‘874 patent. A subject with suitably chosen pulse variability can then be simpler than a hard and fast frequency subject that’s out of tune. One might also management tremors and seizures, by interfering with the pathological oscillatory exercise of neural circuits that happens in these problems. Electromagnetic fields with a pulse variability that leads to a slender spectrum of frequencies across the frequency of the pathological oscillatory exercise might then evoke nerve indicators that trigger section shifts which diminish or quench the oscillatory exercise. 

Pulse variability could be launched as {hardware} within the method described within the ‘304 patent. The variability might also be launched within the laptop program of FIG. 6, by setting FLG3 in step 68, and selecting the amplitude B of the frequency fluctuation. In the variability routine 46, proven in some element in FIG. 13, FLG3 is detected in step 47, whereupon in steps 48 and 49 the heart beat frequency F is modified pseudo randomly by a time period proportional to B, each 4th cycle. Optionally, the amplitude of the picture depth pulsing could also be modified as nicely, in comparable trend. Alternatively, the frequency and amplitude could also be swept via an adjustable ramp, or in keeping with any appropriate schedule, in a fashion identified to these expert within the artwork. The pulse variability could also be utilized to subliminal picture depth pulses. 

When a picture is displayed by a TV monitor in response to a TV broadcast, depth pulses of the picture might merely be imbedded in this system materials. If the supply of video sign is a recording medium, the means for pulsing the picture depth might comprise an attribute of recorded information. The pulsing could also be subliminal. For the case of a video sign from a VCR, the pertinent information attribute is illustrated in FIG. 11, which reveals a video sign report on a part of a video tape 28. Depicted schematically are segments of the video sign in intervals belonging to traces in three picture frames at totally different locations alongside the tape. In every section, the chroma sign 9 is proven, with its short-term common degree 29 represented as a dashed line. The short-term common sign degree, additionally referred to as the pseudo-dc degree, represents the luminance of the picture pixels. Over every section, the extent is right here fixed as a result of the picture is for simplicity chosen as having a uniform luminance over the display screen. However, the extent is seen to differ from body to border, illustrating a luminance that pulses slowly over time. This is proven within the decrease portion of the drawing, whereby the IRE degree of the short-term chroma sign common is plotted versus time. The graph additional reveals a gradual lower of pulse amplitude in time, illustrating that luminance pulse amplitude variations might also be an attribute of the recorded information on the video tape. As mentioned, pulsing the luminance for mounted chrominance leads to pulsing of the picture depth. 

Data stream attributes that characterize picture depth pulses on video tape or in TV indicators could also be created when producing a video rendition or making a shifting image of a scene, merely by pulsing the illumination of the scene. This is illustrated in FIG. 12, which reveals a scene 19 that’s recorded with a video digicam 18, labelled “VR”. The scene is illuminated with a lamp 20, labelled “LAMP”, energized by an electrical present via a cable 36. The present is modulated in pulsing trend by a modulator 30, labeled “MOD”, which is pushed by a pulse generator 6, labelled “GENERATOR”, that produces voltage pulses 35. Again, pulsing the luminance however not the chrominance quantities to pulsing the picture depth. 

The brightness of screens can often be adjusted by a management, which can be addressable via a brightness adjustment terminal. If the management is of the analog sort, the displayed picture depth could also be pulsed as proven in FIG. 15, merely by a pulse generator 6, labeled “GEN”, that’s related to the brigthness adjustment terminal 88 of the monitor 2, labeled “MON”. Equivalent motion could be offered for digital brightness controls, in methods which might be well-known within the artwork. 

The analog part video sign from a DVD participant could also be modulated equivalent to to overlay picture depth pulses within the method illustrated in FIG. 17. Shown are a DVD participant 102, labeled “DVD”, with analog part video output comprised of the luminance Y and chrominance C. The overlay is achieved merely by shifting the luminance with a voltage pulse from generator 6, labeled “GENERATOR”. The generator output is utilized to modulator 106, labeled “SHIFTER”. Since the luminance Y is pulsed with out altering the chrominance C, the picture depth is pulsed. The frequency and amplitude of the picture depth pulses could be adjusted respectively with the tuner 7 and amplitude management 107. The modulator 105 has the identical construction because the modulator of FIG. 2, and the heart beat amplitude management 107 operates the potentiometer 15 of FIG. 2. The similar process could be adopted for modifying a DVD equivalent to to overlay picture depth pulses, by processing the modulated luminance sign via an analog-to-digital converter, and recording the ensuing digital stream onto a DVD, after acceptable compression. Alternatively, the digital luminance information could be edited by digital studying of the sign, decompression, altering the digital information by software program, and recording the ensuing digital sign after correct compression, all in a fashion that’s well-known within the artwork. 

The mechanism whereby a CRT-type monitor emits a pulsed electromagnetic subject when pulsing the depth of a picture is illustrated in FIG. 14. The picture is produced by an electron beam 10 which impinges upon the bottom 88 of the display screen, the place the collisions excite phosphors that subsequently emit mild. In the method, the electron beam deposits electrons 18 on the display screen, and these electrons contribute to an electrical subject Three labelled “E”. The electrons circulate alongside the conductive bottom 88 of the display screen to the terminal 99 which is connected to the high-voltage provide 40, labelled “HV”. The circuit is accomplished by the bottom connection of the provision, the video amplifier 87, labeled “VA”, and its connection to the cathodes of the CRT. The electron beams of the three electron weapons are collectively proven as 10, and collectively the beams carry a present J. The electrical present J flowing via the described circuit induces a magnetic subject 39, labeled “B”. Actually, there are a mess of circuits alongside which the electron beam present is returned to the CRT cathodes, since on a macroscopic scale the conductive again floor 88 of the display screen offers a continuum of paths from the beam influence level to the high-voltage terminal 99. The magnetic fields induced by the currents alongside these paths partially cancel one another, and the ensuing subject depends upon the situation of the pixel that’s addressed. Since the beams sweep over the display screen via a raster of horizontal traces, the spectrum of the induced magnetic subject accommodates robust peaks on the horizontal and vertical frequencies. However, the curiosity right here is just not in fields at these frequencies, however slightly in emissions that outcome from a picture pulsing with the very low frequencies acceptable to sensory resonances. For this function a diffuse electron present mannequin suffices, through which the pixel discreteness and the raster movement of the electron beams are ignored, in order that the beam present turns into diffuse and fills the cone subtended by the displayed picture. The ensuing low-frequency magnetic subject depends upon the temporal modifications within the depth distribution over the displayed picture. Order-of-magnitude estimates present that the low-frequency magnetic subject, though fairly small, could also be ample for the excitation of sensory resonances in topics positioned at a traditional viewing distance from the monitor. 

The monitor additionally emits a low-frequency electrical subject on the picture pulsing frequency. This subject is due partly to the electrons 18 which might be deposited on the display screen by the electron beams 10. In the diffuse electron beam mannequin, display screen situations are thought of features of the time t and of the Cartesian coordinates x and y over a flat CRT display screen. 

The display screen electrons 18 which might be dumped onto the again of the display screen by the sum j(x,y,t) of the diffuse present distributions within the pink, inexperienced, and blue electron beams trigger a possible distribution V(x,y,t) which is influenced by the floor conductivity .sigma. on the again of the display screen and by capacitances. In the straightforward mannequin the place the display screen has a capacitance distribution c(x,y) to floor and mutual capacitances between components of the display screen at totally different potentials are uncared for, a possible distribution V(x,y,t) over the display screen implies a floor cost density distribution 

and provides rise to a present density vector alongside the display screen, 

the place grad.sub.s is the gradient alongside the display screen floor. Conservation of electrical cost implies 

the place the dot over the voltage denotes the time by-product, and div.sub.s is the divergence within the display screen floor. The partial differential equation (9) requires a boundary situation for the answer V(x,y,t) to be distinctive. Such a situation is offered by setting the potential on the rim of the display screen equal to the mounted anode voltage. This is an efficient approximation, for the reason that resistance R.sub.r between the display screen rim and the anode terminal is chosen small in CRT design, as a way to preserve the voltage loss JR.sub.r to a minimal, and in addition to restrict low-frequency emissions. 

Something helpful could be realized from particular instances with easy options. As such, take into account a round CRT display screen of radius R with uniform conductivity, showered within the again by a diffuse electron beam with a spatially uniform beam present density that could be a fixed plus a sinusoidal half with frequency .intg.. Since the issue is linear, the voltage V because of the sinusoidal a part of the beam present could be thought of individually, with the boundary situation that V vanish on the rim of the round display screen. Eq. (9) then simplifies to 

the place r is a radial coordinate alongside the display screen with its by-product denoted by a primary, .eta.=1/.sigma. is the display screen resistivity, A the display screen space, J the sinusoidal a part of the overall beam present, and that i=(-1), the imaginary unit. Our curiosity is in very low pulse frequencies .intg. which might be appropriate for excitation of sensory resonances. For these frequencies and for sensible ranges for c and .eta., the dimensionless quantity 2.pi..intg.cA.eta. may be very a lot smaller than unity, in order that it may be uncared for in Eq. (10). The boundary worth drawback then has the straightforward resolution ##EQU1## 

In deriving (11) we uncared for the mutual capacitance between components of the display screen which might be at totally different potentials. The ensuing error in (10) is negligible for a similar motive that the i2.pi..intg.cA.eta. time period in (10) could be uncared for. 

The potential distribution V(r) of (11) alongside the display screen is after all accompanied by electrical expenses. The subject traces emanating from these expenses run primarily to conductors behind the display screen that belong to the CRT construction and which might be both grounded or related to circuitry with a low impedance path to floor. In both case the talked about conductors should be thought of grounded within the evaluation of expenses and fields that outcome from the pulsed part J of the overall electron beam present. The described electrical subject traces find yourself in electrical expenses that could be referred to as polarization expenses since they’re the results of the polarization of the conductors and circuitry by the display screen emission. To estimate the pulsed electrical subject, a mannequin is chosen the place the talked about conductors are represented collectively as a grounded completely conductive disc of radius R, positioned a brief distance .delta. behind the display screen, as depicted in FIG. 16. Since the grounded conductive disc carries polarization expenses, it’s referred to as the polarization disc. FIG. 16 reveals the round CRT display screen 88 and the polarization disc 101, briefly referred to as “plates”. For small distances .delta., the capacitance density between the plates of reverse polarity is sort of equal to .epsilon./.delta., the place .epsilon. is the permittivity of free house. The cost distributions on the display screen and polarization disc are respectively .epsilon.V(r)/.delta.+q.sub.Zero and -.epsilon.V(r)/.delta.+q.sub.0, the place the .epsilon.V(r)/.delta. phrases denote opposing cost densities on the finish of the dense subject traces that run between the 2 plates. That the half q.sub.Zero is required as nicely will turn into clear within the sequel. 

The cost distributions .epsilon.V(r)/.delta.+q.sub.Zero and -.epsilon.V(r)/.delta.+q.sub.Zero on the 2 plates have a dipole second with the density ##EQU2## 

directed perpendicular to the display screen. Note that the plate separation .delta. has dropped out. This implies that the exact location of the polarization expenses is just not vital within the current mannequin, and additional that .delta. could also be taken as small as desired. Taking .delta. to zero, one thus arrives on the mathematical mannequin of pulsed dipoles distributed over the round CRT display screen. The subject because of the cost distribution q.sub.Zero might be calculated later. 

The electrical subject induced by the distributed dipoles (12) could be calculated simply for factors on the centerline of the display screen, with the outcome ##EQU3## 

the place V(0) is the heart beat voltage (11) on the display screen middle, .rho. the space to the rim of the display screen, and z the space to the middle of the display screen. Note that V(0) pulses harmonically with frequency .intg., as a result of in (11) the sinusoidal half J of the beam present varies on this method. 

The electrical subject (13) because of the dipole distribution causes a possible distribution V(r)/2 over the display screen and a possible distribution of -V(r)/2 over the polarization disc, the place V(r) is nonuniform as given by (11). But for the reason that polarization disc is an ideal conductor it can’t help voltage gradients, and due to this fact can’t have the potential distribution -V(r)/2. Instead, the polarization disc is at floor potential. This is the place the cost distribution q.sub.0 (r) is available in; it should be equivalent to to induce a possible distribution V(r)/2 over the polarization disc. Since the space between polarization disc and display screen vanishes within the mathematical mannequin, the potential distribution V(r)/2 is induced over the display screen as nicely. The whole potential over the monitor display screen thus turns into V(r) of (11), whereas the overall potential distribution over the polarization disc turns into uniformly zero. Both these potential distributions are as bodily required. The electrical expenses q.sub.Zero are moved into place by polarization and are partly drawn from the earth via the bottom connection of the CRT. 

In our mannequin the cost distribution q.sub.Zero is positioned on the similar place because the dipole distribution, viz., on the aircraft z=Zero inside the circle with radius R. At factors on the middle line of the display screen, the electrical subject because of the monopole distribution q.sub.Zero is calculated within the following method. As mentioned, the monopoles should be such that they trigger a possible .phi..sub.Zero that is the same as V(r)/2 over the disc with radius R centered within the aircraft z=0. Although the cost distribution q.sub.0 (r) is uniquely outlined by this situation, it can’t be calculated simply in an easy method. The problem is circumvented by utilizing an intermediate outcome derived from Excercise 2 on web page 191 of Kellogg (1953), the place the cost distribution over a skinny disc with uniform potential is given. By utilizing this outcome one readily finds the potential .phi.*(z) on the axis of this disc as ##EQU4## 

the place .beta.(R.sub.1) is the angle subtended by the disc radius R.sub.1, as seen from the purpose z on the disc axis, and V* is the disc potential. The result’s used right here in an try to assemble the potential .phi..sub.0 (z) for a disc with the nonuniform potential V(r)/2, by the ansatz of writing the sphere as on account of a linear mixture of summary discs with numerous radii R.sub.1 and potentials, all centered within the aircraft z=0. In the ansatz the potential on the symmetry axis is written ##EQU5## 

the place W is chosen because the perform 1-R.sub.1.sup.2 /R.sup.2, and the constants a and b are to be decided such that the potential over the aircraft z=Zero is V(r)/2 for radii r starting from Zero to R, with V(r) given by (11). Carrying out the combination in (15) provides 

In order to search out the potential over the disc r<R within the aircraft z=0, the perform .phi..sub.0 (z) is expanded in powers of z/R for 0<z<R, whereafter the powers z.sup.n are changed by r.sup.n P.sub.n (cos.theta.), the place the P.sub.n are Legendre polynomials, and (r,.theta.) are symmetric spherical coordinates centered on the display screen middle. This process quantities to a continuation of the potential from the z-axis into the half ball r<R, z>0, in such a fashion that the Laplace equation is glad. The methodology is mentioned by Morse and Feshbach (1953). The “Laplace continuation” permits calculation of the potential .phi..sub.Zero alongside the floor of the disc r<R centered within the aircraft z=0. The requirement that this potential be V(r)/2 with the perform V(r) given by (11) permits fixing for the constants a and b, with the outcome 

Using (17) in (16) provides ##EQU6## 

and by differentiation with respect to z one lastly finds ##EQU7## 

for the electrical subject on the middle line of the display screen caused by the cost distribution q.sub.0 (z). 

The center-line electrical subject is the sum of the half (13) on account of distributed pulsed dipoles and half (19) on account of distributed pulsed monopoles. Although derived for round screens, the outcomes might function an approximation for different shapes, such because the acquainted rounded rectangle, by taking R because the radius of a circle that has the identical space because the display screen. 

For two CRT-type screens the pulsed electrical subject on account of picture depth pulsing has been measured at a number of factors on the display screen middle line for pulse frequencies of 1/2 Hz. The screens had been the 15″ computer monitor used in the sensory resonance experiments mentioned above, and a 30″ TV tube. The experimental outcomes have to be in contrast with the idea derived above. Since R is decided by the display screen space, the electrical fields given by (13) and (19) have as solely free parameter the heart beat voltage V(0) on the display screen middle. The amplitude of this voltage can due to this fact be decided for the examined screens by becoming the experimental information to the theoretical outcomes. Prior to becoming, the info had been normalized to a picture that occupies your entire display screen and is pulsed uniformly with a 100% depth amplitude. The outcomes of the one-parameter match are displayed in FIG. 18, which reveals the theoretical graph 100, along with the normalized experimental information factors 103 for the 15- laptop monitor and for the 30″ TV tube. FIG. 18 shows that the developed theory agrees fairly well with the experimental results. From the best fit one can find the center-screen voltage pulse amplitudes. The results, normalized as discussed above, are .vertline.V(0).vertline.=266.2 volt for the 15″ laptop monitor and .vertline.V(0).vertline.=310.1 volt for the 30″ TV tube. With these amplitudes in hand, the emitted pulsed electric field along the center line of the monitors can be calculated from the sum of the fields (13) and (19). For instance, for the 15″ laptop monitor with 1.8% RGB pulse modulation used within the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance experiments talked about above, the pulsed electrical subject on the middle of the topic, positioned at z=70 cm on the display screen middle line, is calculated as having an amplitude of 0.21 V/m. That such a pulsed electrical subject, utilized to a big portion of the pores and skin, is ample for thrilling the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance is per experimental outcomes mentioned within the ‘874 patent. 

In deriving (11), the dimensionless quantity 2.pi..intg.cA.eta. was mentioned to be a lot smaller than unity. Now that the values for .vertline.V(0).vertline. are identified, the validity of this assertion could be checked. Eq. (11) implies that .vertline.V(0).vertline. is the same as .eta..vertline.J.vertline./4.pi.. The sum of the beam currents within the pink, inexperienced, and blue electron weapons for 100% depth modulation is estimated to have pulse amplitudes .vertline.J.vertline. of 0.5 mA and a pair of.Zero mA respectively for the 15″ computer monitor and the 30″ TV tube. Using the derived values for .vertline.V(0).vertline., one arrives at estimates for the display screen resistivity .eta. as 6.7 M.OMEGA./sq. and 1.9 M.OMEGA./sq. respectively for the 15″ computer monitor and the 30″ TV tube. Estimating the display screen capability cA as 7 pf and 13 pf, 2.pi..intg.cA.eta. is discovered to be 148.instances.10.sup.-6 and 78.instances.10.sup.-6, respectively for the 15″ computer monitor and the 30″ TV tube. These numbers are very small in comparison with unity, in order that the step from (10) to (11) is legitimate. 

The following procedures had been adopted in getting ready pulsed pictures for the sphere measurements. For the 15″ computer monitor the images were produced by running the VB6 program discussed above. The pulsed image comprised the full screen with basic RGB values chosen uniformly as R=G=B=127, with the exception of an on/off button and a few data boxes which together take up 17% of the screen area. The image intensity was pulsed by modifying the R, G, and B values by integer-rounded sine functions .DELTA.R(t), .DELTA.G(t), and .DELTA.B(t), uniformly over the image, except at the button and the data boxes. The measured electric field pulse amplitudes were normalized to a pulsed image that occupies all of the screen area and has 100% intensity modulation for which the image pulses between black and the maximum intensity, for the fixed RGB ratios used. The image intensity depends on the RGB values in a nonlinear manner that will be be discussed. For the measurements of the pulsed electric field emitted by 30″ TV tube, an identical picture was used as for the 15″ laptop monitor. This was accomplished by taking part in again a camcorder recording of the pc monitor show when operating the VB6 program, with 40% pulse modulation of R, G, and B. 

In entrance of the monitor, i.e., for z>0, the components (13) and (19) contribute about equally to the electrical subject over a sensible vary of distances z. When going behind the monitor the place z is adverse the monopole subject flips signal in order that the 2 components practically cancel one another, and the ensuing subject may be very small. Therefore, behind the CRT, errors on account of imperfections within the concept are comparatively giant. Moreover our mannequin, which pretends that the polarization expenses are all positioned on the polarization disc, fails to account for the electrical subject flux that escapes from the outer areas of the again of the display screen to the earth or no matter conductors occur to be current within the vincinity of the CRT. This flaw has comparatively extra critical penalties within the again than in entrance of the monitor. 

Screen emissions in entrance of a CRT could be reduce dramatically by utilizing a grounded conductive clear defend that’s positioned over the display screen or utilized as a coating. Along the traces of our mannequin, the defend quantities to a polarization disc in entrance of the display screen, in order that the latter is now sandwiched between to grounded discs. The display screen has the pulsed potential distribution V(r) of (11), however no electrical flux can escape. The mannequin could also be modified by selecting the polarization disc within the again considerably smaller than the display screen disc, by a fraction that serves as a free parameter. The fraction might then be decided from a match to measured fields, by minimizing the relative customary deviation between experiment and concept. 

In every of the electron beams of a CRT, the beam present is a nonlinear perform of the driving voltage, i.e., the voltage between cathode and management grid. Since this perform is required within the normalization process, it was measured for the 15″ laptop monitor that has been used within the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance experiments and the electrical subject measurements. Although the beam present density j could be decided, it’s simpler to measure the luminance, by studying a light-weight meter that’s introduced proper as much as the monitor display screen. With the RGB values within the VB6 program taken as the identical integer Okay, the luminance of a uniform picture is proportional to the picture depth I. The luminance of a uniform picture was measured for numerous values of Okay. The outcomes had been fitted with 

the place c.sub.1 is a continuing. The finest match, with 6.18% relative customary deviation, was obtained for .gamma.=2.32. 

Screen emissions additionally happen for liquid crystal shows (LCD). The pulsed electrical fields might have appreciable amplitude for LCDs which have their driving electrodes on reverse sides of the liquid crystal cell, for passive matrix in addition to for lively matrix design, equivalent to skinny movie expertise (TFT). For preparations with in-plane switching (IPS) nevertheless, the driving electrodes are positioned in a single aircraft, in order that the display screen emission may be very small. For preparations apart from IPS, the electrical subject is intently approximated by the perimeter subject of a two-plate condenser, for the straightforward case that the picture is uniform and extends over the complete display screen. For a round LCD display screen with radius R, the sphere on the middle line could be readily calculated as on account of pulsed dipoles which might be uniformly distributed over the display screen, with the outcome 

the place E.sub.d (z) is the amplitude of the pulsed electrical subject at a distance z from the display screen and V is a voltage pulse amplitude, through which the aperture ratio of the LCD has been taken into consideration. Eq. (21) can be utilized as an approximation for screens of any form, by taking R because the radius of a circle with the identical space because the display screen. The outcome applies to the case that the LCD doesn’t have a floor connection, in order that the highest and backside electrodes are at reverse potential, i.e., V/2 and -V/2. 

If one set of LCD electrodes is grounded, monopoles are wanted to maintain these electrodes at zero potential, a lot as within the case of a CRT mentioned above. The LCD state of affairs is less complicated nevertheless, as there isn’t any cost injection by electron beams, in order that the potentials on the highest and backside plates of the condenser within the mannequin are spatially uniform. From (14) it’s seen that monopoles, distributed over the disc of radius R within the aircraft z=Zero equivalent to to supply on the disc a possible V/2, induce on the symmetry axis a possible ##EQU8## 

Differentiating with respect to z provides the electrical subject on the symmetry axis ##EQU9## 

induced by the pulsed monopoles. For an LCD with one set of electrodes grounded, the pulsed electrical subject for display screen voltage pulse amplitude V at a distance z from the display screen on the middle line has an amplitude that’s the sum of the components (21) and (23). The resultant electrical subject within the again is comparatively small, because of the change in signal within the monopole subject that’s precipitated by the issue z/.vertline.z.vertline.. Therefore, display screen emissions in entrance of an LCD could be stored small merely by having the grounded electrodes in entrance. 

As a test on the idea, the pulsed electrical subject emitted by the three” LCD-TFT color screen of the camcorder mentioned above has been measured at eleven points on the center line of the screen, ranging from 4.0 cm to 7.5 cm. The pulsed image was produced by playing back the video recording of the 15″ laptop monitor that was made whereas operating the VB6 program mentioned above, for a picture depth pulse frequency of 1/2 Hz, R=G=B=Okay, modulated round Okay=127 with an amplitude .DELTA.Okay=51. After normalization to a uniform full display screen picture with 100% depth modulation by utilizing the nonlinear relation (20), the experimental information had been fitted to the theoretical curve that expresses the sum of the fields (21) and (23). The efficient display screen pulse voltage amplitude V was discovered to be 2.1 volt. The relative customary deviation in V for the match is 5.1%, which reveals that concept and experiment are in pretty good settlement. 

Certain screens could cause excitation of sensory resonances even when the pulsing of displayed pictures is subliminal, i.e., unnoticed by the common individual. When checking this situation on a pc monitor, an issue arises due to the rounding of RGB values to integers, as happens within the VB6 program. For small pulse amplitude the sine wave is thereby distorted right into a sq. wave, which is less complicated to identify. This drawback is alleviated considerably by selecting .DELTA.R=0, .DELTA.G=0, and .DELTA.B=2, since then the Eight rounded sine features across the unit circle, multiplied with the heart beat amplitude .DELTA.B=2 turn into the sequence 1, 2 11 2, 1, -1 -2, -2, -1, and so forth, which is smoother to the attention than a sq. wave. Using the VB6 program and the 15″ computer monitor mentioned above with R=71, G=71, and B=233, a 1/2 Hz pulse modulation with amplitudes .DELTA.R=.DELTA.G=0 and .DELTA.B=2 could not be noticed by the subject, and is therefore considered subliminal. It is of interest to calculate the screen emission for this case, and conduct a sensory resonance experiment as well. A distance z=60 cm was chosen for the calculation and the experiment. Using Eq. (20), the image intensity pulse modulation for the case is found to be 1.0% of the maximum intensity modulation. Using R=13.83 cm together with .vertline.V(0).vertline.=266.2 V for the 15″ laptop monitor, and the theoretical graph 100 of FIG. 18, the pulsed electrical subject at z=60 cm was discovered to have an amplitude of 138 mV/m. In view of the experimental outcomes mentioned within the ‘874 and ‘922 patents, such a subject, used at a pulse frequency chosen appropriately for the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance and utilized predominantly to the face, is predicted to be ample for thrilling the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance. A affirmation experiment was accomplished by operating the VB6 program with the mentioned settings and the 15″ monitor. The center of the subject’s face was positioned on the screen center line, at a distance of 60 cm from the screen. A frequency sweep of -0.1% per ten cycles was chosen, with an initial pulse frequency of 34 ppm. Full ptosis was experienced by the subject at 20 minutes into the run, when the pulse frequency was f=31.76 ppm. At 27 minutes into the run, the frequency sweep was reversed to +0.1% per ten cycles. Full ptosis was experienced at f=31.66 ppm. At 40 minutes into the run, the frequency sweep was set to -0.1% per ten cycles. Full ptosis occurred at f=31.44 ppm. The small differences in ptosis frequency are attributed to chemical detuning, discussed in the Background Section. It is concluded that the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance was excited in this experiment by screen emissions from subliminal image pulsing on the 15″ laptop monitor at a distance of 60 cm. For every implementation and embodiment mentioned, the picture pulsing could also be subliminal. 

The human eye is much less delicate to modifications in hue than to modifications in brightness. In composite video this truth permits utilizing a chrominance bandwidth that’s smaller than the luminance bandwidth. But it additionally has the consequence that pulsing of the chrominance for mounted luminance permits bigger pulse amplitudes whereas staying inside the subliminal pulse regime. Eq. (3) reveals methods to pulse the chrominance elements R-Y and B-Y whereas conserving Y mounted; for the change in pixel depth one then has 

Luminance pulses with mounted chrominance give a change in pixel depth 

Of course, pure chrominance pulses could also be mixed with pure luminance pulses; an occasion of such mixture has been talked about above. 

The subliminal area in colour house must be explored to find out how marginally subliminal pulses .DELTA.R, .DELTA.G, and .DELTA.B depend upon RGB values. Prior to this, the situation for picture pulses to be subliminal shouldn’t be phrased solely when it comes to the proportion of depth pulse amplitude. The subliminal picture pulsing case thought of above, the place the monitor is pushed by a VB6 laptop program with R=G=71, B=233, and .DELTA.R=.DELTA.G=0, .DELTA.B=2 for full-screen pictures might be known as “the standard subliminal image pulsing”. 

In the curiosity of the general public we have to know the viewing distances at which a TV with subliminally pulsed pictures could cause excitation of sensory resonances. A tough exploration is reported right here which can function place to begin for additional work. The exploration is proscribed to estimating the biggest distance z=z.sub.max alongside the middle line of the 30″ TV at which screen emissions can excite the 1/2 Hz resonance, as determined by the ptosis test. The TV is to display an image which undergoes the standard subliminal pulsing as defined above. It would be best to perform this test with the 30″ TV on which the subliminally pulsed pictures are produced by technique of a video. Since such a video was not obtainable, the ptosis check was performed as an alternative with a pulsed electrical subject supply consisting of a small grounded doublet electrode of the sort mentioned within the ‘874 patent. The doublet was pushed with a sinusoidal voltage of 10 V amplitude, and the middle of mass of the topic was positioned on the middle line of the doublet at a distance z=z.sub.d =323 cm. The doublet electrodes are rectangles of 4.Four cm by 4.7 cm. At the big distance z.sub.d there may be whole-body publicity to the sphere, in order that the majority impact mentioned within the ‘874 patent comes into play, as is predicted to occur additionally on the distance z.sub.max from the 30″ TV monitor. The subject was facing the “sizzling” electrode of the doublet, so that at the subject center the electric field was the sum of the parts (21) and (23), for positive values of z. It was thought important to use a sine wave, since that would be the “commercially” preferred pulse shape which allows larger pulse amplitudes without being noticed. The only readily available sine wave generator with the required voltage was an oscillator with a rather coarse frequency control that cannot be set accurately, although the frequency is quite stable and can be measured accurately. For the experiment a pulse frequency of 0.506 Hz was accepted, although it differs considerably from the steady ptosis frequency for this case. The subject experienced several ptosis cycles of moderate intensity, starting 8 minutes into the experiment run. It is concluded that the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance was excited, and that the stimulating field was close to the weakest field capable of excitation. From Eqs. (21) and (23), the electric field pulse amplitude at the center of mass of the subject was found to be 7.9 mV/m. That an electric field with such a small pulse amplitude, applied to the whole body, is capable of exciting the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance is consistent with experimental results reported in the ‘874 patent, although these were obtained for the 2.4 Hz resonance. Next, the distance z.sub.max was determined at which the 30″ TV tube with 1% picture depth pulse amplitude produces an electrical subject with a pulse amplitude of seven.9 mV/m, alongside the middle line of the display screen. From Eqs. (13) and (19) one finds z.sub.max =362.9 cm. At greater than 11 ft, it is a slightly giant distance for viewing a 30″ TV. Yet, the experiment and concept mentioned present that the 1/2 Hz sensory resonance could be excited at this huge distance, by pulsing the picture depth subliminally. Of course, the excitation happens as nicely for a spread of smaller viewing distances. It is thus obvious that the human nervous system could be manipulated by display screen emissions from subliminal TV picture pulses. 

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The invention is just not restricted by the embodiments proven within the drawings and described within the specification, that are given by approach of instance and never of limitation, however solely in accordance with the scope of the appended claims.