Riot police in the Polish capital used truncheons and rubber bullets on Sunday to break up a crowd of right-wing extremists who pelted them with firecrackers and lumps of concrete at a parade to mark the national holiday.
It was the second year independence day celebrations have degenerated into violence, underlining the gulf between the government and hardline nationalists who think liberal values imported from Europe are ruining Poland’s Catholic traditions.
Police told Reuters that 132 people were detained following the violence, which took place in central Warsaw. Five policemen sustained injuries that needed hospital treatment.
The day started with thousands of police in riot gear lining the streets trying to stop trouble erupting between right-wing groups, left-wing radicals, and government supporters — all holding their own independence day parades to push their competing visions of what sort of country Poland should be.
Poland, the biggest economy in eastern Europe, is experiencing a period of peace and prosperity unusual for a country with such a turbulent history.
Prime Minister Donald Tusk, a liberal, is credited by many Poles for bringing political stability. But the predominantly Catholic society is deeply split over issues such as abortion, gay rights and how deeply to integrate with the European Union.
Violence flared as demonstrators gathered for a right-wing rally in the shadow of the Palace of Culture and Science, a neo-gothic, Soviet-era skyscraper in the city center.
Young men with their faces covered by scarves chanted nationalist slogans and railed against supposed Jewish conspiracies.
“We are Poles, that is why we came here. Poland is going in … the direction of dependency, energy dependency, economic dependency,” said a demonstrator who gave his name as Wojciech.
Not all were there because of their political convictions. Large numbers appeared to be soccer hooligans who were attracted by the prospect of a fight.