In 1823, Samuel Russell, a child of the Wall Street banking establishment, founded “Russell & Company” the largest opium smuggling operation in the world. Russell and Company was based in Connecticut, and in addition to Chinese tea and silk, specialized in acquiring opium in Turkey and smuggling it to China (16).
In 1830, Russell and Company bought out their primary competitor, the Perkins (Boston) syndicate and thus established Connecticut as the epicenter of the illegal opium trade. Because of the incredible wealth generated, and through his connections to Wall Street, Russell’s company (and thus Connecticut) became an epicenter of illegal and secret political power (16).
The grandfather of President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Warren Delano, Jr., served as Chief of Operations, at Russell and Company, and later became a partner (16).
In 1831, William Huntington Russell, half-brother to Samuel, left the United States and Yale college, to spend a year studying in Germany (17). Germany was in a fever, the epicenter of “new ideas” and a scientific revolution in psychology, philosophy, and educational reform. In the new Germany, children were being educated according to the “scientific method.” They were taught what to think and how to think it, as well as total obedience to the state.
William Huntington Russell wanted to learn first hand, “The “Scientific Method” and the ideas and philosophy of Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel. Hegel held the Chair in Philosophy at the University of Berlin from 1817 until his death in 1831.
In Germany, the scientific method, and the Hegelian dialectic were being applied to every aspect of human endeavor: through reason and the application of the scientific method, it was possible to create a pre-determined synthesis and thus the most desirable predetermined outcomes (1).
Russell was particularly impressed with the concept of “thesis versus anti-thesis” and Hegel’s historical dialectic: the state is absolute, individuals are granted their freedoms based on their obedience to the state, controlled conflict, by an intellectual elite, can produce a pre-determined outcome.
Russell, being a child of the Wall Street banking elite, quickly realized the implications. Hegel’s philosophy and the “Scientific Method” could be applied to banking: Through controlled conflict, it was possible to create a synthesis in the form of incredible financial wealth. Those engaged in this conflict would require financing.
Controlled conflict, when conducted in secret, would be good for business. Indeed, secrecy is mandated when the dialectic is applied to the creation of “opposing forces” who are to be manipulated into engaging in a “controlled conflict.” Secrecy is also necessitated so that the opposing forces do not realize that the same banks are providing funds to both of those in conflict.
Of course, William Huntington Russell was not the first to realize the necessity of secrecy for the purposes of applying Hegel’s dialectic to banking and commerce. Banking requires secrecy, particularly when it comes to laundering incredible sums of money acquired through criminal enterprise and the drug trade.
Long before he arrived in Germany, Russell had learned the value of secrecy. What he wanted was to learn first hand was the Hegelian scientific method. So, it is not surprising that after he enrolled at the University of Berlin, Russell became a member of a secret society which also incorporated Hegelian ideas.
Russell joined the secret order of “Skull and Bones” (17). The membership of the Berlin order of Skull and Bones came from the privileged class, the aristocracy, and the families of bankers and the moneyed elite. Russell fit fight in and formed a warm and close relationship with many of its members.
When it came time for his to return to America and Yale college, Russell sought and obtained permission to form an American chapter of the secret German Society of Skull and Bones: chapter 322, The Brotherhood of Death (17,18).
Russell returned to the United States and Yale College in 1832. Russell, along with his very close friend, Alphonso Taft (the father of William Howard Taft who became President of the U.S. and then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court), and 13 other children of the Wall Street elite, established and became the founding members of “The Order of Scull and Bones,” later changed to “The Order of Skull and Bones.”
The Order of Skull and Bones was to be a super secret society for the elite children of the Anglo-American Wall Street banking establishment (17,18). Its purpose: To generate incredible wealth and power for its members.
Presumably, the Order of Skull and Bones exists only at Yale. As detailed in Antony C. Sutton’s superbly researched 1986 text, America’s Secret Establishment (17):
“Those on the inside know it as The Order. Others have known it for more than 150 years as Chapter 322 of a German secret society. More formally, for legal purposes, The Order was incorporated as The Russell Trust in 1856. It was also once known as the ‘Brotherhood of Death.’ Those who make light of it, or want to make fun of it, call it ‘Skull & Bones’, or just plain ‘Bones’.”
The Order of Skull and Bones, however, is certainly not a college fraternity fun-house.
Rather, the purpose of Skull and Bones is the application of skull duggery, piracy, and the scientific method to the creation of power, wealth, and the inducement of controlled conflict between opposing individuals, businesses, and states.
The Order of Skull and Bones is also geared to promote the mutual success of its members in the post-collegiate world. Hence, only those of the incoming senior class become members (17,18) and membership is retained for life.
Each year fifteen juniors are selected by the graduating seniors to be initiated into next year’s group. New members are reportedly given a large sum of money, and a clock – the significance of which is to remind them that the Order of Skull and Bones is timeless.
As detailed by Antony Sutton (17) it is the “timeless” nature of this secret brotherhood which provides it with continuity and thus the capacity to build up both vertical and horizontal “chains of influence.”
These multi-generational chains of influence ensure the success of its members in their varied schemes, be it drug smuggling or the creation and financing of controlled conflict for the purposes of acquiring power and incredible wealth.
Prescott Bush, George H.W. Bush, and his son, George W. Bush, are alumni of Yale and members of Skull and Bones (17,19).
THE BROTHERHOOD OF DEATH I
After its founding, Russell and friends hoisted a pirate flag as a symbol and talisman of their brotherhood. The pirate flag has an obvious meaning: death. Pirates are terrorists, murderers, marauders, cutthroats and thieves, answerable to no one, above the law, and without morals and scruples.
Soon after its establishment at Yale, the Order of Skull and Bones began to develop an unsavory reputation (17).
In October of 1876, an investigative article on The Order, appeared in Volume 1, Number 1, of “The Iconoclast.” The Iconoclast was published off campus, in New Haven, “because the college press is closed to those who dare to openly mention Bones’.”
The Iconoclast reported evidence of Satanism, i.e. walls covered in black, and in room 322, the…
“sanctum sanctorium of the temple…[was] furnished in red velvet…[with] a pentagram on the wall… and in the hall….pictures of the founders of Bones at Yale, and of members of the Society in Germany, when the chapter was established here in 1832.”
The Iconoclast goes on to report that,
“Out of every class Skull and Bones takes its men. They have gone out into the world and have become in many instances, leaders in society. No doubt they are worthy men in themselves, but the many, whom they looked down upon while in college, cannot so far forget as to give money freely into their hands. Bones men care far more for their society than they do for the college.”
“At first the society held its meetings in hired halls; in 1856, the ‘tomb,’ a vine-covered, windowless, brown-stone hall was built. This is where they hold their strange, occultist initiation rites and meet each Thursday and Sunday.”
“Year by year the deadly evil is growing,” The Iconoclast warned. “The society was never as obnoxious as it is today. Never before has it shown such arrogance and self-fancied superiority. It grasps… and endeavors to rule. It clutches at power with the silence of conscious guilt… a society guilty of serious and far-reaching crimes.”
An uninvited “guest” to the tomb reported seeing:
“On the west wall, an old engraving representing an open burial vault, in which, on a stone slab, rest four human skulls, grouped about a fools cap and bells, an open book, several mathematical instruments, a beggar’s script, and a royal crown (17,18). On the arched wall above the vault are the explanatory words, in Roman letters, ‘We War Der Thor, Wer Weiser, Wer Bettler Oder, Kaiser?’ and below the vault is engraved, in German characters, the sentence; ‘Ob Arm, Ob Beich, im Tode gleich.’”
The English translation of the German words reads as follows:
“Who was the fool, who the wise man, beggar or king? Whether poor or rich, all’s the same in death.”
And what does that mean? There are no morals. There is no right or wrong. The ends justify the means. Everything ends the same, “in death.”
For the next 30 years after its founding, various members of The Order of Skull and Bones made a pilgrimage to Germany and the University of Berlin (17). The University of Berlin was Ground Zero for the study of Hegelian principles and the “scientific method” as applied to business, government, education, psychology, and the acquisition of power and wealth.
In Germany, the state had taken complete responsibility for the education of children. The purpose of a German education was to mold the character and thinking of all German citizens and to make them obedient to the German state (1).
These Hegelian principles were absorbed by the visiting Bonesman, three of which, upon returning to America, applied these principles at home (17).
Timothy Dwight (class of 1849) became Professor in the Yale Divinity School and then 12th President of Yale University. Daniel Coit Gilman (class of 1852) became the first President of the University of California, first President of the Johns Hopkins University and first President of the Carnegie Institution. Andrew Dickson White (class of 1853) became the first President of Cornell University.
For these three “Bonesmen,” a university education was the key to shaping the thoughts, prejudices, and ideas of future generations and training those who would someday become the future leaders of America. Of course, these noble “Bonesmen” had no interest in providing a university education to the masses.
A university education was only for the children of the rich and powerful; men who would seek to fulfill the Hegelian dialectic and the eventual creation of a New World Order which would be ruled over by the moneyed elite.
NEW WORLD ORDER – CIVIL WAR & THE MONEYED ELITE
Although, most certainly, the founding of colleges and universities is to be commended in the most laudatory of terms, not all “Bonesmen” were interested in improving the lot of mankind.
Education would be a form of thought control and mankind would serve only one purpose: to engage in controlled conflict, to help create a New World Order, and to thus make the Bonesmen and their banker and business friends very powerful and very rich.
The American civil war offered the Bonesmen and their associates in banking, the first opportunity, in America, to fund controlled conflict. The resulting “synthesis” would include the erosion of democracy at the local level (“states rights”), the elimination of state-chartered “Free Banking” and the establishment of centralized “national” banking and thus the establishment of a few private “national” banks that could be owned and controlled by a handful of families.
From the outset of the American civil war, these private national banks (as well as the “Free” banks), loaned money to both the Union and the Confederacy (20).
Many of these bankers also funded and equipped “bushwakers,” “death squads,” and private militias whose specialties included the torture and assassination of Union or Confederate sympathizers. Neighbors were sometimes “slain before the eyes of their wives and children,” some were killed for “fun” (21).
Not uncommonly these “death squads” would pick “off neighbors one by one,” ambushing and assassinating suspected enemies, and spreading terror. Every man, armed or unarmed, was fair game. Men were shot down in their fields, on their doorsteps, while on the road. Men taken captive were scalped, beheaded, castrated, and mutilated. Crops, homes and entire towns were burned (21).
The owners of these banks, these merchants of death, essentially funded the war and the many competing death squads in order to reap the incredible, staggering profits. Indeed, by the end of the war, over $6.6 billion dollars in direct costs (that is, in 1860s dollars) had been consumed by the civil war and the government of the Union and Confederacy (20).
War and terror were good business. The merchants of death made incredible fortunes.
In 1863, Abraham Lincoln identified this moneyed elite, as the enemies of mankind and the enemies of the United States of America:
“The money powers prey upon the nation in times of peace and conspire against it in times of adversity. It is more despotic than a monarchy, more insolent than autocracy, more selfish than bureaucracy. It denounces, as public enemies, all who question its methods or throw Light upon its crimes.
I have two great enemies, the Southern Army in front of me and the bankers in the rear. Of the two, the one at my rear is my greatest foe… corporations have been enthroned, and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will endeavor to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until the wealth is aggregated in the hands of a few, and the Republic is destroyed.”
– Abraham Lincoln
Thomas Jefferson was of the same opinion:
“I sincerely believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. Already they have raised up a money aristocracy that has set the government at defiance. The issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people to whom it properly belongs.”
In 1863, after a failed attempt to bring the banks under centralized government control, President Lincoln and Congress took the advice of his Secretary of the Treasury and the northern banking establishment, and created a national banking system and a uniform national currency to be issued only by “national banks” (20).
The National Banking Act of 1863 and a subsequent law passed in 1865 (which levied a 10-percent tax on State banks) put the free banks out of existence. The control of the national banks was put squarely into the hands of the members of the order of Skull and Bones (20).
It wasn’t just banking but money which was put under the control of a handful of individuals. National Bank Notes were printed by private bank note companies under contract to the Federal government.
The Guaranty Trust Company was one of the national banks which emerged during the war between the states.
The Guaranty Trust Company, established in 1864, was controlled almost entirely by families whose sons were, or would soon become, members of Skull and Bones: Vanderbilt, Whitney, and Harriman (17,22).
THE BROTHERHOOD OF SHIPPING & BANKING – HITLER’S ANGELS
The concept of a bank is quite simple. Money is deposited in the bank for safekeeping, and the bank may pay a small interest fee to depositors in return.
This same money is loaned to businesses, governments, and men of means, at a high rate of interest.
This same money can be loaned to those who own the banks, at a 0% interest rate, and the loans may even be “forgiven.” A bank is a risk-free money-making machine for those who own the bank. If anyone defaults on a loan, and if the bank goes bankrupt, only the depositors lose money.
With the incredible amounts of money flowing into the coffers of the Guaranty Trust Company, the Harriman family was able to finance and buy the bankrupt Union Pacific Railroad, as well as create the W. A. Harriman investment firm.
Bert Walker (the maternal great-grand-father to the current George Walker Bush clan) was one of Harriman’s principal partners. Bert Walker had sought and lost the Republican presidential nomination, but in so doing, had established himself as a member of the Republican power-elite (23).
Bert Walker and then later, his son, George Walker, were not only partners with the Harrimans, but, due to their Republican credentials, were well situated to influence the administrations of successive Republican presidents. The Harrimans were also partners with the Rockefellers.
The Harriman railroad shipped the oil pumped out of the ground by John D. Rockefeller, the founder of Standard Oil.
Samuel P. Bush – the father of Prescott, was also in business with the Harriman-Walker-Rockefeller clique. Samuel P. Bush, owned Buckeye Steel Castings Co. which manufactured parts for the Harriman railroad company (23).
It is men likes these, if not these very men, who Lincoln referred to as,
“The money powers [who] prey upon the nation in times of peace and conspire against it in times of adversity… until the wealth is aggregated in the hands of a few, and the Republic is destroyed.”
TRADING WITH THE ENEMY
In the 1930s, Bush, Harriman, and Rockefeller, established themselves as enemies of democracy by going into business with Hitler, and by importing Nazism to the United States.
As detailed in chapter 2, it is because Bush was still in business with the Nazis after Hitler declared war on the U.S., that several of his companies, including the Hamburg-Amerika shipping line, was confiscated by the government of the United States.
History was repeating itself, for at the close of the first world war, and Germany’s defeat, the Hamburg-Amerika’s commercial shipping fleet was first confiscated by the American government in 1919 – part of the spoils of war.
In 1920, the Harrimans became the new owners of Hamburg- Amerika. The Harrimans also obtained the exclusive right to 50% of all shipping business that originated in Hamburg and 100% control of all activities of the Hamburg line that originated in the United States.
In 1931, Harriman & Co. merged with Brown Brothers to become one of the biggest investment banks in the world. Prescott Bush became a senior partner in the new firm. That same year, George Walker began running the North American operations of the Hamburg-Amerika shipping line under the auspices of Walker’s American Shipping & Commerce, which in turn was controlled by a holding company called the Harriman Fifteen. Averell Harriman, George Walker, and Prescott Bush were the directors of this holding company and thus the owners of the Hamburg-Amerika line (4,23).
Three years later, U.S. government investigators determined that several of the directors of the Hamburg-Amerika line, were major contributors to the Nazi Party. These men, it was determined, had provided a wealth of funds to Hitler for his 1932 election campaign (12). Prescott Bush was one of these men. Prescott Bush was financing Nazi terrorism as a means of destabilizing Germany’s democratic government and catapulting Hitler to power.
Prescott Bush and one of the companies that he directed, the Hamburg-Amerika Line, was identified by the U.S. embassy in Berlin as providing the funds to support Hitler’s,
“costly election campaigns’’ and “the cost of maintaining a private army of 300,000 to 400,000 men.”
It was these men who spread terror throughout Germany.
As detailed by Tarpley and Chaitkin (24),
“The American embassy also reported that the Hamburg-Amerika Line was purchasing and distributing propaganda attacks against the German government, for attempting this last-minute crackdown on Hitler’s forces.”
After Hitler came to power, the Hamburg-Amerika Line also began financing Nazi propaganda and subsidizing pro-Nazi newspapers here in the U.S.
The purpose of this propaganda was clear. The Bonesmen were not just seeking to support Nazi Germany, but were seeking to undermine the constitutional government of the United States (4,24).
The Bonesmen were sworn enemies of democracy.
Nato=Nazi link seven
After Hitler came to power, his dreaded terrorist organization, the SS was unleashed upon the German people (3,5,6).
The SS was not just a terrorist organization, but deeply involved in spying and espionage as well as business. Other long range goals was to establish monopolies not only in Germany, but in all the countries it conquered (6).
Himmler’s dreaded SS, had a lot of friends in the business world who also hoped to benefit from the spoils. They gave him and his SS incredible sums of money, making them, so to speak, stockholders in his money-making terrorist organization.
The Hamburg-Amerika line, which was directed by Prescott Bush, not only contributed money and helped to distribute Nazi propaganda in the U.S. and Germany, but it was also one of the official “Friends of the Reichsfuhrer SS” (6) – also known as “The Order” and the “Brotherhood of Death.”
Like its American counterpart, the “Order of Skull and Bones” the German “Order” was dedicated to making money, and recruited its membership from the aristocracy and the moneyed elite.
HITLER AND THE BROTHERHOOD OF DEATH
In 1922, Averell Harriman, an alumni of Skull and Bones (Class of 1913), made a pilgrimage to Germany.
But Hamburg wasn’t the lure. It was Berlin – the ancestral home of Skull and Bones, the Brotherhood of Death. Indeed, various members of The Order of Skull and Bones had been making pilgrimages to Germany and the University of Berlin since the inception of the American chapter of the Brotherhood of Death (17). Harriman was a dedicated “Bonesman.”
According to his third wife, Pamela, Averell,
“Harriman regularly went back to the tomb (the Bone’s Temple) on High Street, once even lamenting that his duties as chief negotiator at the Paris Peace Talks prevented him from attending a reunion” (25).
While in Berlin he made contact with Fritz Thyssen, also, allegedly, a member of a Germany-based secret society; though which one, of course, is a secret.
A number of German secret societies were in existence at the time, such as the Illuminnati of Bavaria and the Thule Society. These secret societies counted rich industrialists, mystics, aristocrats, bankers and high ranking military men among their members (26).
In the early 1920s, when Harriman paid his visit to Germany, the membership of the Thule Society included Dietrich Eckart, Rudolf Hess, and Heinrich Himmler (27) all of whom were directly associated with Adolph Hitler, and all of whom became Nazi leaders (3,5). The secret society that had anointed Hitler as its leader, would later become known to the world as the SS – The Brotherhood of Death (6).
Although it cannot be proved, there is evidence to suggest that Himmler’s SS, and its American counterpart, Skull and Bones, were one and the same and directly linked with the Thule Society or the Illuminnati. In fact (and as will be detailed later in this chapter), some of the occult rituals that were said to be part of the initiation into the Thule Society and the SS (27), are similar to those that are said to be practiced by initiates into the American chapter of the Brotherhood of Death, that is, Skull and Bones (17,28).
For example, both employ initiation ceremonies in which the initiate “dies to the world and be born again into the Order…” (29).
In October of 1988 then Vice-President George H.W. Bush was asked by a reporter if he were “a Christian.” At first Bush seemed confused by the question, but then said, “if you mean born again, then, yes, I am a Christian.”
In his book, Mein Kamph (7) and in some of his speeches, Hitler also refers to being born again, that is “born anew.” Likewise, George Bush Jr., refers to himself as “born again” and freely admits he was “honored” to be chosen to be a member of Skull and Bones.
As reported in the August 7, 2000 issue of Time magazine, Bush was asked:
“Did you have any qualms, say, about joining an elite secret club like Bones?” Bush replied, “No qualms at all. I was honored.”
The motto of Hitler’s SS begins as follows:
“It is an honor to be an SS man. It is an honor…” (6).
The leaders of the Thule Society also believed it to be an honor to have inducted Hitler into the mysteries of its secret order (27).
In 1919, Dietrich Eckart, a leading member of the Thule Society, met Adolph Hitler for the first time. Eckhart believed that Hitler was the German “Messiah… the long-awaited savior” who would lead Germany to her destiny.
Eckhart took Hitler under his wing and initiated Hitler into the mysteries of the secret order:
“Follow Hitler; he will dance, but it is I who have called the tune. I have initiated him into the Secret Doctrine, opened his centers of vision, and given him the means to communicate with the powers” (27).
Hitler, in turn, referred to Eckhart as the “spiritual founder of” the Nazi party (7). In Table Talk (7) Hitler says of the man:
“We’ve all taken a step forward on the road of existence, and we could no longer picture to ourselves exactly what Dietrich Eckart was for us. He shone in our eyes like the polar star.”
In the final paragraphs of Mein Kampf (7), Hitler says of Eckart,
“he was one of the best, who devoted his life to the awakening…”
Prominent members of Thule also included Rudolf Hess.
Fritz Thyssen, who Harriman visited in 1922, reports that it was Hess who introduced him to Adolph Hitler. Thyssen too, thought Hitler would be the savior of Germany (30).
Like the Bonesmen, Thyssen believed that the New World Order would be ruled by the kings of banking and commerce.
THE BANKING BROTHERHOOD
Thyssen and Harriman agreed to establish a banking association, and two years later, in 1924 the W.A. Harriman Co., established an international investment firm, “Union Banking Corporation,” which was in business with the Thyssens (31).
Bert Walker’s son, George Herbert Walker, was made president (24).
As detailed by Webster G. Tarpley & Anton Chaitkin in their superbly documented book, George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography,
“by personal agreement between Averell Harriman and Fritz Thyssen in 1922… the Union Banking Corporation has since its inception handled funds chiefly supplied to it through the Dutch bank by the Thyssen interests for American investment… transferring funds back and forth between New York and the Thyssen interests.”
The Union Banking Corporation and the Thyssen bank also acted as Nazi fronts and served to launder funds for Thyssen and the Nazis – money and funds that could be used to buy guns, arms, favorable publicity, and dozens of U.S. senators, congressman, and newspaper editors (12).
“Prescott Bush became vice president of W.A. Harriman & Co. in 1926. That same year, a friend of Harriman and Bush set up a giant new organization for their client Fritz Thyssen, prime sponsor of politician Adolph Hitler.
The new German Steel Trust, Germany’s largest industrial corporation, was organized in 1926 by Wall Street banker Clarence Dillon. Dillon was an old comrade of Prescott Bush’s father Sam Bush” (24).
Thyssen went into business with Harriman for the same reasons he went into business with Hitler, to increase his wealth and power.
It is unlikely that Thyssen did not inform Harriman of his intention of helping Hitler come to power. Indeed, Fritz Thyssen was Adolph Hitler’s primary financial backer and had been providing considerable financial support to Hitler and the Nazis, since 1923 (30). At their first meeting, Thyssen gave the new “German Messiah,” $25,000.
At the same time, Thyssen and Harriman were also making big plans, some of which were dependent on Hitler coming to power.
As Thyssen explained (30):
“We were at the worst time of the inflation. In Berlin the government was in distress. It was ruined financially. Authority was crumbling. In Saxony a communist government had been formed and the Red terror, organized by Max Hoelz, reigned through the countryside. The German Reich … was now about to crumble.”
Thyssen states that it was General Erich Ludendorff who first told him of Hitler and that Hess made the introductions.
In 1923, General Erich Ludendorff was also the chief patron of Hitler’s SA – which, because it had been outlawed by the German government, had been renamed “Frontbann” (6). The SA (“Frontbann”) was a terrorist organization, which counted among its members, Heinrich Himmler.
Thyssen admits that he was mesmerized by Hitler (30).
“I realized his orator gifts and his ability to lead the masses. What impressed me most however was the order that reigned over his meetings, the almost military discipline of his followers.”
In 1924, after his meetings with Hitler, Fritz Thyssen sent Hendrick J. Kouwenhoven, the managing director of his bank, to meet with the Harriman-Walker clique. It was after that meeting that the Union Banking Corporation was established.
In 1926 George Walker made his son-in-law Prescott Bush, vice-president of Harriman & Co. and president of Union Banking (24).
The Thyssen banking relationship was expanded to include partnerships in the new German Steel Trust, Germany’s largest industrial corporation, which was also headed by Fritz Thyssen, Adolph Hitler’s primary financial backer.
According to the United States Government, Prescott Bush’s Union Banking Corporation (which he directed) was working as a front for the “Thyssen family” of “Germany… nationals … of a designated enemy country” (31).
As summed up by John Loftus, former U.S. Department of Justice Nazi War Crimes prosecutor, and the President of the Florida Holocaust Museum:
“Thyssen (and the Nazi Party) obtained” his “early financing from Brown Brothers Harriman, and its affiliate, the Union Banking Corporation. Union Bank, in turn, was the Bush family’s holding company for a number of other entities, including the Holland American Trading Company.
The Bush’s Union Bank bought the same corporate stock that the Thyssens were selling as part of their Nazi money laundering.”
These Nazi-front companies, “Brown Brothers, Harriman” and “Union Banking Corporation,” were controlled almost entirely by men who belonged to the American chapter of “Skull and Bones” (32).
Prescott Bush and associates, and Standard Oil, also provided loans, executive expertise, and petroleum-related products to I.G. Farben(12). IG Farben used that expertise to develop poison gas and petroleum to drive the Nazi war machine, and to run its slave labor and death-camps, the most notorious of which was Auschwitz where 83,000 people worked as slaves.
It is estimated that in the concentration camps alone, Himmler’s SS, worked to death and killed over 10 million men and women (6). A favored method of killing was using a special gas developed by IG Farben.
As detailed in chapter 2, Prescott Bush and Harriman were also in business with several other leading Nazis, such as Friedrich Flick who later became Hitler’s minister of the Interior, as well as IG. Farben, the company that developed the poison gas to kill Russians, gypsies, and Jews. Like Harriman and Bush, Flick was a member of The Order (6).
The Flick-Harriman partnership was managed by Prescott Bush (see chapter 2).
According to a U.S. government brief presented in 1946 at the Nuremberg war crimes tribunal, industrialist Friedrich Flick, was “a leading financial contributor to the Nazi Party from 1932 on and a member of the Circle of Friends of Himmler who contributed large sums to the Nazi SS.”
The “Circle of Friends” is also known as the “Friends of the Reichsfuhrer SS.” The Hamburg-Amerika line, which was directed by Prescott Bush, was also counted among the Friends of the Reichsfuhrer SS (6) – also known as “The Order” and the “Brotherhood of Death.”
Frick joined this most secretive and powerful of societies in 1932. By contrast, Prescott Bush and the Harriman brothers (W.A. and E.R) joined the American chapter of The Order, in 1917, 1913, and 1917, respectively, long before Hitler had taken the first steps on his long road to power.
They were all part of the same brotherhood, however. Indeed, be it the Thule Society, the SS, or the American version of “The Order,” all sprouted from the same German roots.
THE BROTHERHOOD OF DEATH II
The evil, diabolic symbolism of Skull and Bones is designed to stir feelings of terror and to warn of death which is why it appears on bottles of poison and has been the symbol of choice for pirates and death squads.
It is precisely because it is designed to induce terror that the symbol of the death head became the talisman worn on the black uniforms of Adolph Hitler’s Nazi elite: The Order – the dreaded SS, the Brotherhood of Death.
The Bonesman of Yale shared not just the symbolism of the Skull and Bones with the SS Nazi elite, but practiced many of the same exact initiation rituals and recruited their elite members from the same strata of society.
Like the Bonesmen of Yale, the Nazi SS recruited its members from the upper echelons of society, i.e. the blue bloods, bankers, and aristocrats. As detailed by Heinz Hohns (6),
“the first arrivals were from the aristocracy. Even before the Nazi seizure of power certain great names had been added to the SS list” including Grand Dukes, Counts, and Princes.
“in spring 1933 came a further infusion of blue blood. Many of the senior SS posts were occupied by the nobility… and the ruling class elite. The primary requirements in the SS, were money and officer material, and they could come only from one source – the old-established ruling class elite – the nobility, the world of commerce and the financiers… German’s captains of industry.”
There were, however, different ranks within the SS.
Those who were to belong to the highest ranks underwent an initiation ceremony similar to that of the Order of Skull and Bones at Yale. As detailed in Heinz Hohn’s, The Order of the Death’s Head (6), initiates into the SS underwent an occult-like quasi-religious midnight ceremony involving oath-taking, question and answer confessions, and prayer-like sessions, all of which were designed to impress upon the initiate that he was able to become a “knight” and a member of a secret brotherhood.
The ceremony took place at midnight, in a castle, beneath the dining hall where there lay “a stone crypt” and “the realm of the dead” (6).
“A flight of steps in the middle of the crypt led down into a well-like cavity; in the centre of the cavity were twelve stone pedestals.”
Bones and relics, including the skull and skeleton of noble men and kings were also kept within the “holy of holies” including the bones of “King Heinrich.”
Initiates would thus commune with the spirits of the dead, who might appear and even speak. The initiate into the SS, by undergoing this spiritual journey, would also be reborn, as a knight, and a member of the secret order (6).
Likewise, we are informed that initiates into Yale’s ‘The Order’, were required to undergo an array of “exotic and occult” “bonding rituals” including a quasi-religious midnight ceremony which involved question and answer confessions that took place while the initiate lay in a coffin (17,29).
The ceremony took place in castle, at midnight, in “the tomb.”
As explained by Ron Rosenbaum (29) while lying in the “coffin” the initiates goes,
“off on a symbolic journey through the underworld to rebirth, which takes place in Room Number 322. There, the Order clothes the newborn knight in its own special garments, implying that, henceforth, he will tailor himself to the Order’s mission” (p. 89, 148).
The Castle walls of Himmler’s SS headquarters, were heavily decorated with Nazi symbols and regalia.
Likewise, based on several independent reports by those who visited the Skull and Bones’ Yale Castle – what Bones initiates call “the Tomb” – some of the walls and rooms are covered with Nazi symbols and regalia, including swastikas, and “SS macho Nazi iconography.”
One visitor described a room with “a little Nazi shrine inside” (17,18).
In yet another room of the Order of Skull and Bones, one visitor observed “mantelpieces decorated with loads of skulls.” She and others have been told,
“that in order to prove their mettle and perhaps to bond them in mutual guilt over participation in an illicit act, each class of 15 new initiates to Skull and Bones are required to dig up the skull of a famous person and bring it to the Tomb to be enshrined in its skull collection” (17,18).
Like the SS, The Order of Skull and Bones is also known as the Brotherhood of Death. And we are told, initiates into the SS and The Order of Skull and Bones, are required to say the words: “It is an honor…”
When George W. Bush was asked,
“Did you have any qualms, say, about joining an elite secret club like Bones?” Bush replied, “I was honored” (33).
The identical symbolism and use of similar language is not just coincidence. In fact, Prescott Bush and several of his fellow Bonesmen, felt such an affinity with Nazi terrorist ideals, that they helped arm Hitler’s SS and the Nazi terrorist war machine.
However, Bush and his partners in banking and oil, did not link up with Hitler and his SS just because of shared ideology but because of money, oil, and an unquenchable thirst for power.
THE OIL BROTHERHOOD I
As the 1932 presidential elections began, Hitler and the Nazi party were almost broke. They were desperate for funds. And then, after meeting with the captains of industry, Hitler was suddenly flush with cash.
According to Hitler’s vice-Chancellor, Franz von Papen (34),
“the most documented account of the National Socialists’ sudden acquisition of funds was contained in a book published in Holland in 1933.” It was published “by the old established Amsterdam publishing house of Van Holkema & Warendorf, called De Geldbronnen van Het Nationaal-Socialisme (Drie Gesprekken Met Hitler) under the name “Sidney Warburg.”
In that book, “The Financial Sources of National Socialism” it is claimed that Hitler’s rise to power was aided directly by Wall Street bankers, industrialists, and oil companies, including Standard Oil, and John D. Rockefeller, who contributed $32,000,000 between the years 1929 to 1932.
In the opening paragraphs, the author, who calls himself “Sydney Warburg” states that:
“There are moments when I want to turn away from a world of such intrigue, trickery, swindling and tampering with the stock exchange… Do you know what I can never understand? How it is possible that people of good and honest character – for which I have ample proof – participate in swindling and fraud, knowing full well that it will affect thousands.”
The New York Times (11/24/1933), was quick to dismiss the book, but in so doing, revealed its own Nazi sympathies: “Hoax on Nazis Feared.”
Feared? The New York Times, “feared” that not only the Nazis, but the publishers were “victims of a hoax.”
The New York Times was apparently a fan of Hitler, for prior to 1933, and during the same time Rockefeller and Standard Oil were contributing millions of dollars, it ran several quite positive stories about Adolph Hitler in 1929, 1930, and 1931 (35) as did the Hearst publishing empire (15).
The author of this “feared hoax” was “Sydney Warburg.” However, after the book’s publication, not only the New York Times but the Warburg family, which included Max Warburg, a director of IG Farben in Germany, and Paul Warburg a director of American I.G. Farben, denounced the book.
Of course, we also know that IG. Farben was a major financial supporter of Hitler, and we know the Standard Oil and the Bush-Harriman clique were in business with IG Farben (36). So, the Warburg denunciation cannot be taken completely seriously.
Nevertheless, James Warburg demanded that the book be destroyed because it contains,
“a mass of libelous material against various members of my family and against a number of prominent banking houses and individuals in New York.”
However, Warburg then goes on to say,
“I have never to this day seen a copy of the book” (37).
Within days of the book’s publication, and although those who denounced it have never seen a copy it disappeared from circulation and almost all copies were quickly destroyed (36).
As detailed in Antony C. Sutton’s well documented book, Wall Street and the Rise of Hitler (36), the first section of the book explains that in 1929, American banks and investors were concerned that the demands by France on German war reparations, were eating into their own profits.
Thus, these American business men called a meeting in June 1929 to discuss the problem and what might be done.
Those in attendance included “members of the Federal Reserve Bank and leading American bankers” including the “directors of Guaranty Trust Company, the Presidents of the Federal Reserve Banks, in addition to five independent bankers, young Rockefeller, and Glean from Royal Dutch Shell.
Rockefeller” and “Carter” of Guaranty Trust Company,
“dominated the proceedings. The others listened and nodded their heads.”
Antony Sutton, then goes on to report that according to Warburg’s book,
“The general consensus at the bankers’ meeting was that the only way to free Germany from French financial clutches was by revolution, either Communist or German Nationalist.” Rockefeller argued that the money should go to Hitler. After some negotiation, 10 million dollars was transferred to the Nazis.
During subsequent meetings, it was explained that Hitler’s storm troopers and SS, were insufficiently equipped and badly needed machine guns, revolvers, and carbines. Hitler explained that he had two plans for takeover in Germany: (a) revolution (b) legal takeover plan. Hitler is quoted as saying, “revolution costs five hundred million marks. Legal takeover costs two hundred million marks – what will your bankers decide?”
A legal takeover thus offered the best deal. Warburg passed these demands to Rockefeller and Guaranty Trust and received the following answer in reply:
“Suggested amounts are out of the question. We don’t want to and cannot. Explain to man that such a transfer to Europe will shatter financial market. Absolutely unknown on international territory. Expect long report, before decision is made. Stay there. Continue investigation. Persuade man of impossible demands. Don’t forget to include in report own opinion of possibilities for future of man.”
After further negotiations, Rockefeller and the American banking and oil interests offered an additional $15 million which would help finance the legal takeover. Revolution would be too expensive and destructive.
In the months after Hitler took power, in 1933, Warburg delivered yet another payment from Rockefeller and Carter and their associates in banking, industry, and oil, i.e. 7 million dollars (37).
Although the New York Times, and the directors of IG Farben – a company that assisted in the murder of millions of men, women, and children – have decried this cruel “hoax” which puts the Nazis, Rockefeller, Standard Oil, and the bankers at Guaranty in such a bad light, we do know that these men and these companies were in business with the Nazis (13).
And we know that Emil Helfferich, chairman of the Bush-Harriman company, Hamburg-Amerika, was also chairman of Standard Oil’s German subsidiaries.
Emil Helfferich frequently wrote out checks to Heinrich Himmler payable on a special Standard Oil account. According to U.S. intelligence documents reviewed by author Anthony Sutton (36), Helfferich was still making these payments to the S.S. in 1944 – the same S.S. which was rounding up, enslaving, and supervising the mass murder of Russians, Jews, Gypsies, Poles, etc., at IG Farben’s death camps.
THE STANDARD OIL NAZIS
“In two years Germany will be manufacturing oil and gas enough out of soft coal for a long war. The Standard Oil of New York is furnishing millions of dollars to help.”
-Commercial Attaché, U.S. Embassy in Berlin, Germany, January 1933.
Standard Oil also provided expertise to IG. Farben including the know how to make leaded gasoline. As detailed in an IG Farben memo:
“Since the beginning of the war we have been in a position to produce lead tetraethyl solely because, a short time before the outbreak of the war, the Americans had established plants for us ready for production and supplied us with all available experience. In this manner we did not need to perform the difficult work of development because we could start production right away on the basis of all the experience that the Americans had for years.”
In another IG Farben memo Standard Oil’s assistance in procuring $20 million worth of aviation fuel and lubricants is acknowledged:
“As a further remarkable example of advantageous effect for us of the contract between IG and Standard Oil, the following should be mentioned: in the years 1934 / 1935 our government had the greatest interest in gathering from abroad a stock of especially valuable mineral oil products (in particular, aviation gasoline and aviation lubricating oil), and holding it in reserve to an amount approximately equal to 20 million dollars at market value.
The German Government asked IG if it were not possible, on the basis o fits friendly relations with Standard Oil, to buy this amount in Farben’s name; actually, however, as trustee of the German Government. The fact that we actually succeeded by means of the most difficult negotiations in buying the quantity desired by our government from the American Standard Oil Company and the Dutch – English Royal – Dutch – Shell group and in transporting it to Germany, was made possible only through the aid of the Standard Oil Co.”
Standard oil, Rockefeller, and the Bush-Harriman clique, not only provided financial and technological assistance to Hitler, but assisted his war effort and terror campaign to the detriment of the United States (13,36,38).
It is because of this collaboration, that the Bush-Harriman- Walker properties were seized by the U.S. government for violation of the Trading with the Enemy Act (31).
Charges of “criminal conspiracy with the enemy” were also filed against Standard Oil. However, when evidence of collusion was presented by Thurman Arnold, chief of the Antitrust Division of the U.S. government, it was pointed out by Standard that it was also selling oil and fuel to the U.S. Army, Navy, and Air Force. If Standard Oil were punished, America might lose a major share of its oil supply, and might lose the war.
Standard Oil not only threatened the government of the United States, but it had already orchestrated a major oil and gasoline shortage during the Summer of 1941. These artificial shortages were also investigated by the United States Congress.
As summarized by the U.S. National Archives, a “Special Committee to Investigate Gasoline and Fuel-Oil Shortages” commenced hearings on August 28, 1941.
“18.89 Fear of impending gasoline scarcity along the Atlantic seaboard gripped the American public during the summer of 1941. Members of Congress were deluged with letters and telegrams from concerned constituents. In August… authorities… sought to quiet public concern. These statements failed to stop the hoarding of gasoline and the deterioration of public confidence.”
“18.90 In response to the confusing situation, the Senate established the Special Committee to Investigate Gasoline and Fuel- Oil Shortages (78A-F31) on August 28, 1941. The committee, chaired by Francis T. Maloney of Connecticut, was to investigate the shortage of fuel in the various States, the methods of delivery, and the means to ensure an adequate supply for national defense without undue hardship to the private sector… A major focus of the committee was the petroleum distribution system.”
Recalling the terrible gas shortages which were due to a problem in the “petroleum distribution system” the government backed down and Rockefeller and Standard oil escaped punishment.
The charges of “criminal conspiracy with the enemy” were dropped. However, Standard Oil did not get off the hook completely.
Standard oil agreed to release its patents and pay a modest fine. Thurman Arnold did not let the matter drop, however. He, along with Secretary of the Interior Harold Ickes, provided the documents detailing the collusion between Standard Oil and IG Farben, to Senator Harry Truman, chairman of the Senate Special Committee Investigating the National Defense Program.
There followed a series of hearings in March 1942,
“In order to disclose the truth about Standard” (13, 39).
After the hearing, the committee chairman, Harry S. Truman, characterized the arrangements between Standard Oil and IG Farben as “treasonable.” Again, however, the entire matter was dropped. Standard Oil again threatened to disrupt the U.S. war effort.
According to Mark Aarons and John Loftus (The Secret War Against the Jews),
“There was a reason for Rockefeller’s escape: blackmail. According to the former intelligence officers we interviewed on this point, the blackmail was simple and powerful: The Dulles brothers (John Foster, later Secretary of State, and Allen, later director of the CIA) had one of their clients threaten to interrupt the U.S. oil supply during wartime.
Standard executives made it clear that the entire U.S. war effort was fueled by their oil and it could be stopped… The American government had no choice but to go along if it wanted to win the war” (39).
In May of 1942, another aspect of the treasonable relationship maintained between Standard Oil and IG Farben was brought up during testimony before a Patents Committee hearings, chaired by Senator Homer T. Bone.
Even after Hitler declared war on the United States, Rockefeller and thus Standard Oil was collaborating with Nazi Germany and seeking to prevent the U.S. from manufacturing explosives and synthetic rubber (40,41,42).
Following the conclusion of the war, Standard Oil’s treasonable behavior was again brought to light by the United States Congress. During congressional hearings conducted before the Truman, Bone, and Kilgore Committees, it was concluded that “Standard Oil” had “seriously imperiled the war preparations of the United States” and that Standard Oil had colluded with IG Farben, to prevent the United States from gaining access to war-related technologies such as the creation of “synthetic rubber.”
As noted, although the most serious charges against Standard Oil were dropped, the U.S. government did seize a number of its patents, under the Trading with the Enemy Act.
However, in July of 1944, Standard Oil, filed a lawsuit against the U.S. government, contesting the seizure of its patents. In November of 1945, Judge Charles E. Wyzanski ruled that the government had been entitled to seize the patents.
Standard Oil appealed.
On September 22, 1947, Judge Charles Clark rejected the appeal, concluding that,
“Standard Oil can be considered an enemy national in view of its relationships with IG. Farben after the United States and Germany had become active enemies” (40).
Rockefeller, of course, was a member of the Brotherhood. Rockefeller was also in business with other Nazi collaborators, including Prescott Bush and the Harrimans.
THE OIL BROTHERHOOD II
From 1927 to 1941, the future director of the CIA, Allen Dulles worked as lawyer and international finance specialist for Sullivan & Cromwell, a Wall Street law firm in New York.
Dulles performed work for Bush, Harriman, and Rockefeller in setting up business relationships with the Nazis and with top Nazi industrialists, and served as legal counsel for Standard Oil and the Nazi’s IG Farben, who had partnered with the Rockefellers (43).
Allen Dulles played a pivotal role in promoting U.S.-Nazi corporate relations. The Nazis considered Allen Dulles to be “the most influential White House man in Europe” and Dulles had numerous meetings with top ranking members of the SS (6).
In fact both Dulles brothers (John Foster, later Secretary of State, and Allen, later director of the CIA) represented the interests of Bush, Harriman, Rockefeller, and other Nazi collaborators prior to, during and after the ending of the second world war.
Whereas Allen served as a spymaster, lawyer and deal maker who brought over a thousand high ranking Nazis into the CIA and found jobs for them in the Republican party and corporate America (43,44), John Foster Dulles was on the board of IG Farben who had partnered with Standard Oil (43).
As was the case with Guaranty Trust, which provided loans to the Nazis and to the Soviet Union, Rockefeller’s Standard Oil was also in business with Hitler’s nemesis: the Soviet Union. By doing business with both fascist regimes, this guaranteed that regardless of who won the war, Standard Oil would profit. The Dulles brothers are said to have played a major role in ironing out the Soviet deal.
In 1938, oil was discovered in Saudi Arabia. The king of Saudi Arabia, Ibn Saud, was a supporter of Adolph Hitler. Dulles, acting as a representative of Standard Oil (as well as IG Farben) also played a major role in negotiating and gaining major concessions from Ibn Saud.
As Saudi Prince Bandar explained to PBS Frontline (45):
“America has never been a colonizing power as far as we were concerned. Our relationship with America… started in the 1930s. And when the Americans came to Saudi Arabia, they didn’t come as an invader. They came actually as a private sector, trying to help us find oil. They found the oil for us, and they’ve been our friends ever since.”
The result of these discoveries and negotiations was a joint venture between Standard Oil, Texaco, and Mobil, and the formation of the Arabian-American Oil Company (ARAMCO).
King Ibn Saud and his family were promised millions in return, whereas the Arabian people received basically nothing (46).
By 1944, Standard Oil had twice artificially created oil shortages as a means of gaining leverage over the U.S. government. Based on the discoveries made in Saudi Arabia, the Standard oilled cartel successfully lobbied the U.S. Senate, which in turn proposed that the U.S. government should finance the construction of oil pipelines and oil refineries so as to meet future energy needs. With the assistance of the Dulles brothers, this proposal soon became a program to assist Standard oil and ARAMCO in the Persian Gulf.
In February and March of 1944, the “Special Committee Investigating Petroleum Resources” began hammering out the details.
As summarized by the United States National Archives:
“18.94 In February 1944, the Petroleum Administrator for War, Secretary of Interior Harold Ickes, announced that the Arabian-American Oil Co. would construct a refinery to produce petroleum war products for the Allied Nations, and that the U.S. Government would construct a petroleum pipeline from the Persian Gulf area to the eastern shore of the Mediterranean and would obtain a crude oil petroleum reserve of one billion barrels in the Gulf area.”
Because of interests pertaining to “national welfare and security” this Special Committee also agreed to “the disposal of Government-owned pipelines and refineries as surplus properties, tidelands oil, and other issues related to petroleum supplies.”
In other words, after twice being held hostage by Standard Oil, the U.S. government agreed to give “Government-owned pipelines and refineries” to this Standard oil-led cartel, and to fund the creation of new pipelines and refineries in Saudi Arabia.
The U.S. government and the oil cartel headed by Standard Oil, were now in business with the “royal family” of Ibn Saud. Saud and his family began receiving millions of dollars in payments as their reward for selling out so cheaply (46).
Roosevelt, it is said, had been considering bringing charges of treason against Dulles, Bush, and Rockefeller following the conclusion of the second world war. However, Roosevelt’s death put a stop to that. Not only did these traitors get off scott free, but the Dulles brothers also received handsome rewards, Allen becoming the first director the CIA, and John, the Secretary of State.
Nevertheless, although faded by time, and despite the purposeful destruction of incriminating records, the facts remain the same:
the Dulles brothers
…had partnered with a terrorist Nazi regime at war with the United States.
The Saudi royal family, the Bush family, the Harrimans, Rockefellers, American banks, American Oil, and America’s political elite, went into business with Nazi terrorists who murdered tens of millions of innocent, men, women, and children, including tens of thousands of Americans. They partnered with a terrorist regime that was at war with America for three interrelated reasons: money, oil, and power.
Decades later, after Bush was elected vice-president and then President, he, the Saudi royal family, and the CIA, would provide tens of millions of dollars in support of yet another terrorist organization that would declare war with the United States, this one ostensibly headed by Saudi multi-millionaire, Osama bin Laden.
As we shall see, doing business with gangsters, thugs, and terrorists who preach death to America, and who kill Americans, is a Bush family tradition (4,47).
1). Phenomenology of Spirit; Philosophy of History; Science of Logic; The Philosophy of Right; by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel.
2). The Bondage of the Will; By Faith Alone; by Martin Luther.
3). W. L. Shirer. “The Rise & Fall of the Third Reich.” Fawcett World Library, New York, 1960.
4). John Loftus and Mark Aarons. “The Secret War Against The Jews” St. Martins Press, New York, 1994; Charles Higham, “Trading with the Enemy – An Expose of the Nazi-American Money Plot 1933-1949,” Delacorte Press, 1983; Webster G. Tarpley & Anton Chaitkin, “George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography,” The Executive Intelligence Review.
5). J. Toland. “Adolf Hitler,” Doubleday, New York, 1976
6). Heinz Hohne. The Order of the Death’s Head.” Ballantine, New York. 1967.
7). Adolf Hitler, “Mein Kampf;” Adolf Hitler, “Table Talk.”
8). David MacGregor, “Hegel and Marx After the Fall of Communism, “Demy, 1998; Sowell Thomas, “Marxist Philosophy and Economics,” William Morrow and Company,” New York 1985. In 1843, Marx began work on a line-by-line analysis of Hegel’s “Philosophy of Right” and introduced a synthesis which he described as “dialectical materialism,” the philosophy of communism. In 1948, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published The Communist Manifesto, in which he applied Hegel’s ideas of thesis and anti-thesis to government and capitalism to arrive at the synthesis of a “conflict-free society;” i.e., communism. Marx believed his idea of a communist society was the fulfillment of Hegel’s ideal, which, according to Marx and Engle, “had been turned upside down on its head.” Marx believed he had put the Hegelian Idea right side up. In Marxist communism, instead of just a few individuals owning all the means of 95 …Bush, bin Laden, 9-11… production, and thus all the wealth, all the people would own their own means of production and would share equally in its rewards. “Hegel- in contrast to his disciples- did not parade ignorance, but was one of the finest intellects of all time” -Friedrich Engels, “The Critique of Political Economy.”
9). Tom Rockmore, “On Heidegger’s Nazism and Philosophy,,” University of California Press, 1992. Leonard Peikoff, “The Ominous Parallels,” Second Renaissance, Inc. 1986.
10). Antony Sutton, “Wall Street And The Bolshevik Revolution,” Arlington House, 1974; Among the banks loaning millions of dollars to the Soviet Union in the early 1900s: J.P. Morgan, Guranty Trust Company (Harriman-Walker), and Rockefeller’s Chase-Manhattan Bank. It is estimated that over $75,000,000 in assistance was provided. In 1912, Mrs. Edward Harriman (Mother of Roland and Averell Harriman) sold 8,000 shares of Guaranty Trust to J.P. Morgan which thus acquired a controlling interest. The Harriman-Walker-Bush and Rockefeller banking clique had their eye on the oil-rich Caspian basin and the Caucuses. With these loans, the Soviet Union was able to purchase oil-related services from companies controlled by this same clique, including Rockefellers Standard Oil which built oil refineries which were financed by the loans provided by Harriman-Bush-Rockefeller banks.
11). The Washington Post, 2/2/1918; John Loftus and Mark Aarons. “The Secret War Against The Jews” St. Martins Press, New York, 1994; Charles Higham, “Trading with the Enemy: An Expose of the Nazi-American Money Plot 1933-1949,” Delacorte Press, 1983; Webster G. Tarpley & Anton Chaitkin, “George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography,” The Executive Intelligence Review; Antony Sutton, “Wall Street and the Bolshevik Revolution,” Arlington House, 1974; Eustace Mullins, “The World Order,” 1980.
12). Anthony Sutton, “Wall Street And The Rise of Hitler,” Anthony Sutton, “How the Order Creates War & Revolution;” John Loftus and Mark Aarons. “The Secret War Against The Jews” St. Martins Press, New York, 1994; Charles Higham, “Trading with the Enemy: An Expose of the Nazi-American Money Plot 1933-1949,” Delacorte Press, 1983; Christopher Simpson, “The Splendid Blond Beast.”
13). “Senate Special Committee Investigating the National Defense Program,” Senator Harry Truman, chairman, May-August, 1942; NMT, “IG. Farben Case,” Volumes VII and VIII; “Elimination of German Resources,” United States Congress; United States Senate, Patents Committee, Senator Homer T. Bone, Chairman, May, 1942.
14). Edward J., Jr. Renehan, “The Kennedys at War, 1937-1945,” Doubleday, 2002.
15). William E. Dodd, U.S. Ambassador to Germany, 1937, “Ambassador Dodd’s Diary;” see also Court Documents: Hearst vs Gillmor, see paragraph 61: “Promptly after this said visit with Adolf Hitler and the making of said arrangements. . . said plaintiff, William Randolph Hearst, instructed all Hearst press correspondents in Germany, including those of INS [International News Service] to report happenings in Germany only in a friendly’ manner. All of such correspondents reporting happenings in Germany accurately and without friendliness, sympathy and bias for the actions of the then German government, were transferred elsewhere, discharged, or forced to resign.” According to journalist George Seldes: “William Randolph Hearst, Sr., was the lord of all the press lords in the United States. The millions who read the Hearst newspapers and magazines and saw Hearst newsreels in the nation’s moviehouses had their minds poisoned by Hitler propaganda.., Hitler had the support of the most widely circulated magazine in history, ‘Readers Digest,’ as well as nineteen big-city newspapers and one of the three great American news agencies, the $220-million Hearst press empire” (George Seldes, “Even the Gods Can’t Change History”).
16). Karl Meyer, “The Opium War’s Secret History,” New York Times, 6/28/1997; Jack Breeching, “The Chinese Opium Wars,” Harcourt Brace Jovanovich 1975.
17). Anthony Sutton, “America’s Secret Establishment: An introduction to The Order of Skull & Bones” Liberty House, New York. 1986.
18). Ron Rosenbaum, “The Last Secrets of Skull and Bones,” Esquire Magazine, September, 1977; Peggy Alder-Robohm, “Skull and Bones – Bush’s Boy’s Club,” Covert Action Quarterly No. 33, 1990; John Schrag, “Skeleton in His Closet,” Willamette Week, September 19- 25, 1991; David W. Dunlap, “Yale Society Resists Peeks Into Its Crypt,” New York Times, 11/4/88.
19). Peggy Alder-Robohm, “Skull and Bones – Bush’s Boy’s Club,” Covert Action Quarterly No. 33, 1990; John Schrag, “Skeleton in His Closet,” Willamette Week, September 19-25, 1991.
20). Bensel, Richard F. “Yankee Leviathan: The Origins of Central State Authority in America, 1859-1877,” Cambridge University Press, 1990; Ransom, Roger L. “Conflict and Compromise: The Political Economy of Slavery, Emancipation, and the American Civil War.” New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989; Ransom, Roger L. “The Economic Consequences of the American Civil War.” In The Political Economy of War and Peace, M. Wolfson. Norwell (Ed), Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998; Goldin, Claudia, and Frank Lewis. “The Post- Bellum Recovery of the South and the Cost of the Civil War: Comment.” Journal of Economic History 38, 487-492, 1978.
21). Michael Fellman, ‘’Inside War.” T. J. Stiles, “Jesse James, Last Rebel of the Civil War,” Knopf, 2002.
22). Ted Flynn, “Hope for the Wicked;” Webster G. Tarpley & Anton Chaitkin, “George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography,” The Executive Intelligence Review. A veritable list of America’s financial elite and powerful have been members of Skull and Bones.
23). Fitzhugh Green, “George Bush: An Intimate Portrait,” Hippocrene Books; Russell S. Bowen (ret. Brigadier General, U. S. Army), “The Immaculate Deception: The Bush Crime Family Exposed,” America West Publishers 1991; Webster G. Tarpley & Anton Chaitkin, “George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography,” The Executive Intelligence Review; Christopher Simpson, “The Splendid Blond Beast.”
24). Webster G. Tarpley & Anton Chaitkin, “George Bush – The Unauthorized Biography,” The Executive Intelligence Review.
25). Walter Isaacson and Evan Thomas, “The Wise Men: Six Friends and the World They Made,” Simon & Schuster, 1986; Christopher Ogden, “Life of the Party: The Biography of Pamela Digby Churchill Hayward Harriman,” Little and Brown and Company 1994
26). William Still “New World Order: The Ancient Plan of Secret Societies,” Huntington House, 1990; Michael Howard, “The Occult Conspiracy: Secret Societies – Their Influence and Power in World History,” Destiny Books 1989; Bill Cooper, “Behold A Pale Horse.”
27). Trevor Ravenscroft, “Spear of Destiny.”
28). Bill Cooper, “Behold a Pale Horse.” Ron Rosenbaum, “The Last Secrets of Skull and Bones,” Esquire Magazine, September, 1977; 29). Ron Rosenbaum, “The Last Secrets of Skull and Bones,” Esquire Magazine, September, 1977.
30). Fritz Thyssen, “I Paid Hitler.”
31). On Oct. 20, 1942, Under the Trading with the Enemy Act, the U.S. government ordered the seizure of Nazi German banking operations in New York City which were being directed by Prescott Bush, including the Union Banking Corporation, in which Bush was a director. The U.S. Alien Property Custodian seized Union Banking Corp.’s stock shares, all of which were owned by Prescott Bush, E. Roland, Bunny Harriman, and three Nazis, and two other Bush associates (see Office of Alien Property Custodian Vesting Order No. 248, Vesting Order No. 259, Vesting Order No. 261, Vesting Order No. 370). Vesting Order No. 248 noted that the Union Banking Corporation was run as a front for the “Thyssen family” of “Germany” and designated “Thyssen” as “nationals … of a designated enemy country.” See also testimony of Capt. Frederick C. Mensing, John Schroeder, Paul von Lilienfeld-Toal, “Investigation of Nazi Propaganda Activities and Investigation of Certain Other Propaganda Activities,” Public Hearings before A Subcommittee of the Special Committee on Un-American Activities, United States House of Representatives, Seventy Third Congress, New York City, July 9-12, 1934 – Hearings No. 73- NY-7, Washington: U.S. Govt. Printing Office, 1934.
32). Members of Skull & Bones in Brown Bros, Harriman: Ray Morris (Class of 1901), Mortimer Seabury (Class of 1909), W.A. Harriman (Class of 1913), E. Roland Harriman (Class of 1917), Prescott Sheldon Bush (Class of 1917), Ellery S. James (Class of 1917), Knight Wooley (Class of 1917), Robert A. Lovett (Class of 1918). Members of Skull and Bones in Union Banking Corp: E. Roland Harriman (Class of 1917), Prescott Sheldon Bush (Class of 1917), Knight Wooley (Class of 1917), Ellery Sedgewick James (Class of 1917).
33). Walter Isaacson, “My Heritage Is Part Of Who I Am,” Time Magazine, 6/72000.
34). Franz von Papen, “Memoirs,” E.P. Dutton & Co., Inc., 1958, Translated by Brian Connell.
35). New York Times, 9/15/1930, 9/21/1930/ In 1929 the New York Times reported only one brief item on Adolf Hitler. In 1931 it repeatedly ran articles on Hitler most of which presented him in a favorable light.
36). Antony C. Sutton, “Wall Street And The Rise of Hitler.”
37). James P. Warburg’s Sworn Affidavit, New York City, New York, 8/15/1949. However, there is also evidence that the Warburgs were also enthusiastic supporters of Hitler. In a letter dated, March 27, 1933, Max Warburg states that “For the last few years business was considerably better than we had anticipated, but a reaction is making itself felt for some months. We are actually suffering also under the very active propaganda against Germany, caused by some unpleasant circumstances. These occurrences were the natural consequence of the very excited election campaign, but were extraordinarily exaggerated in the foreign press. The Government is firmly resolved to maintain public peace and order in Germany, and I feel perfectly convinced in this respect that there is no cause for any alarm whatsoever.” On March 29, 1933, Max’s son, Erich Warburg, sent a cable to his cousin Frederick M. Warburg, a director of the Harriman railroad system; “use all your influence ‘’ to stop all anti-Nazi activity in America, including “atrocity news and unfriendly propaganda in foreign press, mass meetings, etc.” On March 31, 1933, the American-Jewish Committee, issued a statement asking that “no American boycott against Germany be encouraged.” See John L. Spivak “Wall Street’s Fascist Conspiracy,” New Masses, January 29-February 5, 1934.
38). Leonard and Mark Silk, “The American Establishment;” Carrol Quigley, “Tragedy and Hope;”James F. Hopkins, “A History of the Hemp Industry in Kentucky,” University of Kentucky Press, 1951; – George Seldes, “Facts and Fascism,” In Fact, Inc., 1943; George Seldes, “Even the Gods Can’t Change History: The Facts Speak for Themselves,” Lyle Stuart, Inc., 1976.
39). John Loftus and Mark Aarons. “The Secret War Against The Jews” St. Martins Press, New York, 1994;
40). “Trading with the Enemy,”
41). As detailed in the book, Trading with the Enemy, “John R. Jacobs, Jr., of the Attorney General’s department, testified that Standard had interfered with the American explosives industry by blocking the use of a method of producing synthetic ammonia. As a result of its deals with I.G. Farben, the United States had been unable to use this vital process even after Pearl Harbor. Also, the United States had been restricted in techniques of producing hydrogen from natural gas and from obtaining paraflow, a product used for airplane lubrication at high altitudes.” In addition, “Texas oil operator C.R. Starnes appeared to testify that Standard had blocked him at every turn in his efforts to produce synthetic rubber after Pearl Harbor.” This testimony was followed by that of “John R. Jacobs” who “reappeared in an Army private’s uniform (he had been inducted the day before) to bring up another disagreeable matter: Standard had also, in league with Farben, restricted production of methanol, a wood alcohol that was sometimes used as motor fuel.”
42). NMT, IG. Farben case, Volumes VII and VIII, pp. 1304-1311; “Elimination of German Resources, p. 1085.”
43). Richard Sasuly, “IG Farben.” Joseph Borkin, “The Crime and Punishment of I.G. Farben,” 1978.
44). Christopher Simpson, “Blowback: America’s Recruitment of Nazis and Its Effects On the Cold War,” Wiedenfeld & Nicholson, 1988; Tom Bower, “The paperclip conspiracy : the hunt for the Nazi scientists,” Little, Brown, 1987; Charles R. Allen, Jr. Nazi war criminals in America : facts – action : the basic handbook,” Highgate House, 1985; Clarence Lasby, “Project Paperclip; German scientists and the Cold War,” Atheneum, 1971.
45). PBS Frontline, Prince Bandar interview, 9/2001.
46). SaÔd K. Aburish, “A Brutal Friendship: The West and the Arab Elite,” St. Martins Press, 1997; Micah L. Sifry and Christopher Cerf, “The Gulf War Reader,” Random House, 1991; A. M. Vasilev, Alexei Vassiliev, “The History of Saudi Arabia,” New York University Press, 2000.
47). Russell S. Bowen (ret. Brigadier General, U. S. Army), “The Immaculate Deception: The Bush Crime Family Exposed,” America West Publishers. 1991; Peter Brewton, “The Mafia, CIA, and George Bush,” Shapolsky Book Pub., 1992.