Chemtrails have been a conspiracy for some time right now… They are REAL! I know for a fact! All you have to do is look in the sky on a clear day… You can see these airplanes that are way higher than commercial planes.. These planes have no markings and they go different ways than what the FAA dictates. So this is some type of military operation because they are spending a lot of money to do these “death dumps..” People also dismiss this theory by saying these Chemtrails are “Contrails” but that is false.. A Contrail is water vapor which DISSIPATES in the sky unlike Chemtrails which stay in the air for a good amount of time… Scientists and the government dismiss that these Chemtrails exist and they tell the public that these are “normal” occurrences from planes.. People speculate that the purpose of the Chemtrails may be for solar radiation management, population control, weather control, or biological warfare/chemical warfare.. People also claim that these trails are causing respiratory illnesses and other health problems after these planes are spotted over their houses…
So why is the government doing this? Why are they denying it? It’s a part of a future plan, maybe of the New World Order? There is a lot of information on the internet that proves these Chemtrails.. Below ill be including some information that will change you mind if you don’t believe in this “theory..” The first cases that were reported of this phenomenon were in 1997. Most people find out about Chemtrails by reading on the internet or looking up in the sky.. But many people dismiss this theory by claiming it’s “Airplane Exhaust” but that is a big lie! Other people and including the government will tell you that everything is normal in the sky.. But that’s not true.. Chemtrail spraying seems to be heaviest in North America and most countries of Europe. Some countries in Asia are being sprayed like Japan and Korea, but the greatest Chemtrail activity whatsover is in Communist China…. (All NATO Countries…) The UN? NWO? But I noticed after these Chemtrails are sprayed into the sky, clouds begin to form… Now this is not normal, the sky now is always overcast, real windy and weird temperature patterns.. The weather has completely changed this year and I seen more Chemtrails this year than ever… I think there is a master plan going on.. Maybe that’s why there has been so many natural disasters lately.. The government and weather agencies put a lot of disinformation out there to cover-up this phenomenon….Check out this LINK for current Chemtrail projects…. Read More Below To Get Full Knowledge Of These “Death Dumps..”
|Key points about Chemtrails..: (Seen on Educate-Yourself)||SelectShow>|
1. Aluminum. Used in CTs as a low-watt conductor, especially when it concerns ELF [Extremely Low Frequency] (brain wave level) transmissions. The test data for this can be found in the Navy, who pioneered this technology back in the 1960s for their subs. Same for today. The Aluminum is not just any off the shelf variety, but is a blend of T7075, with barium, molybdenum, and copper. Look at the crystal formations in the aluminum and notice the polarizing toward a counter-centric alignment not normally found in nature.
2. CDC. Occasionally, the CDC steps on its own foot. Notice their trend data charts for what they consider “epidemic corridors” and how the USA has exceeded that trend data since Sept of 1998. The charts I got from them six months ago clearly show most Western countries having exceeded “pandemic” level infections from “unknown airborne ailments.”
3. Desiccated red blood cells. Those very elusive desiccated red blood cells. No samples? Easy enough to do. You’ll need to be above ten thousand feet to get near pure petri samples, but it can and is often done. Figure it out. If we can pretend to send a man to the moon, we can get a petri dish up above ten thousand feet.
4. Clouds are NOT radar shields. There isn’t an AWACS bird yet worth its JP10 that can’t easily sidestep any type of cloud cover in existence and that for over 30 years. Looking in this direction is more disinfo. But there is something to it. These ops are constructed and designed to use “existing, natural cloud cover” whenever possible, to shield the real presence of CTs.
Also, any resultant rainfall helps the sprayers by getting their soup in our water tables. They need this aluminum in our drinking water, for reasons involving ionization.
5. Why hasn’t someone yet come up with their spray-pattern templates. We thought that would have been done first, but to date no one has done it. Some C++ skills are needed and are out there. Why? There IS a pattern that is predicable. Barometer here is a crucial key.
6. Don’t look to the Weather Channel. What a piece of fiction those radar images are. The doctoring of real-time images is now done with computers that don’t make mistakes. The process is called “resonant image mirroring” and how it is done is that each GEOS-SAT click (one second snap of real time data, that’s a “click”) is mirrored onto a new screen that gets a wash of the lines and redefines borders. In a moment you have a new sat image devoid of any “lines.” The next second is reviewed by another computer system and three human observers who are literally watching a big screen TV, 24/7,for accuracy. The next second has the images shot into a “relay can” which holds the image for 10 more seconds before it is dumped back into the subscribing routers for download to anyone with the right frequency, a dish, and the decryption codes.
Network TV is an example of a subscriber. NSA, CIA, etc., get the real images, the rest of the world gets make-believe. Pretty neat technology,if you ask me. Two years ago , you could get the images from most of the sats, without any doctoring and the images clearly show an extensive, global, spraying program. Now, it’s almost impossible-without using a govt. node-to get any real “raw” data.
7. Vaccinations. Stop it already. You can only vaccinate against a specific thing.
Common sense reveals this lie. Any govt. can make a bio weapon for which there is no recourse and do it overnight. We really can defend against the unknown, so this is the reason for Cts. Even if we were given the entire arsenal of vaccines against known pathogens, it wouldn’t mean anything to a real bio terrorist: they would just make up something new by Wednesday and fire it off.
The reality check here is that everyone knows that the only bio terrorists functioning in the world have the initials U.S.A. on their sleeves.
8. Fascinating disinfo campaign underway. The most prevalent are ‘radar shield’ and ‘sunscreen’. These will be given the most credence and fringe airtime. By the tons. Sounds nice on the surface…sunscreen.
After reading those points above in the “spoiler box” there is much more interesting information about this Chemtrail conspiracy… There are US Patents that explain this “spraying” of chemicals in the atmosphere… Ill be including this and along with videos….
“How To Make A ChemBuster” Bye Bye Chemtrails!!!!
Now pretty much you can get rid of Chemtrails by using this “CloudBuster/ChemBuster”.. I have seen videos and it does work, I’m planning on making one sometime soon… But watch this VIDEO to see it in action… This LINK also has some really good information about this tactics to remove Chemtrails/Clouds… Now for some of the Patents…
U.S Patents For Chemtrails..
Method and apparatus for altering a region in the earth’s atmosphere, ionosphere, and/or magnetosphere
United States Patent 4,686,605 / Eastlund / August 11, 1987
A method and apparatus for altering at least one selected region which normally exists above the earth’s surface. The region is excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating to thereby increase its charged particle density. In one embodiment, circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation is transmitted upward in a direction substantially parallel to and along a field line which extends through the region of plasma to be altered. The radiation is transmitted at a frequency which excites electron cyclotron resonance to heat and accelerate the charged particles. This increase in energy can cause ionization of neutral particles which are then absorbed as part of the region thereby increasing the charged particle density of the region.
|Altering Weather: US Patent 4,686,605||SelectShow>|
Inventors: Eastlund; Bernard J. (Spring, TX)
Assignee: APTI, Inc. (Los Angeles, CA)
Filed: January 10, 1985
1. A method for altering at least one region normally existing above the earth’s surface with electromagnetic radiation using naturally-occurring and diverging magnetic field lines of the earth comprising transmitting first electromagnetic radiation at a frequency between 20 and 7200 kHz from the earth’s surface, said transmitting being conducted essentially at the outset of transmission substantially parallel to and along at least one of said field lines, adjusting the frequency of said first radiation to a value which will excite electron cyclotron resonance at an initial elevation at least 50 km above the earth’s surface, whereby in the region in which said electron cyclotron resonance takes place heating, further ionization, and movement of both charged and neutral particles is effected, said cyclotron resonance excitation of said region is continued until the electron concentration of said region reaches a value of at least 10.sup.6 per cubic centimeter and has an ion energy of at least 2 ev.
2. The method of claim 1 including the step of providing artificial particles in said at least one region which are excited by said electron cyclotron resonance.
3. The method of claim 2 wherein said artificial particles are provided by injecting same into said at least one region from an orbiting satellite.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein said threshold excitation of electron cyclotron resonance is about 1 watt per cubic centimeter and is sufficient to cause movement of a plasma region along said diverging magnetic field lines to an altitude higher than the altitude at which said excitation was initiated.
5. The method of claim 4 wherein said rising plasma region pulls with it a substantial portion of neutral particles of the atmosphere which exist in or near said plasma region.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein there is provided at least one separate source of second electromagnetic radiation, said second radiation having at least one frequency different from said first radiation, impinging said at least one second radiation on said region while said region is undergoing electron cyclotron resonance excitation caused by said first radiation.
7. The method of claim 6 wherein said second radiation has a frequency which is absorbed by said region.
8. The method of claim 6 wherein said region is plasma in the ionosphere and said second radiation excites plasma waves within said ionosphere.
9. The method of claim 8 wherein said electron concentration reaches a value of at least 10.sup.12 per cubic centimeter.
10. The method of claim 8 wherein said excitation of electron cyclotron resonance is initially carried out within the ionosphere and is continued for a time sufficient to allow said region to rise above said ionosphere.
11. The method of claim 1 wherein said excitation of electron cyclotron resonance is carried out above about 500 kilometers and for a time of from 0.1 to 1200 seconds such that multiple heating of said plasma region is achieved by means of stochastic heating in the magnetosphere.
12. The method of claim 1 wherein said first electromagnetic radiation is right hand circularly polarized in the northern hemisphere and left hand circularly polarized in the southern hemisphere.
13. The method of claim 1 wherein said electromagnetic radiation is generated at the site of a naturally-occurring hydrocarbon fuel source, said fuel source being located in at least one of northerly or southerly magnetic latitudes.
14. The method of claim 13 wherein said fuel source is natural gas and electricity for generating said electromagnetic radiation is obtained by burning said natural gas in at least one of magnetohydrodynamic, gas turbine, fuel cell, and EGD electric generators located at the site where said natural gas naturally occurs in the earth.
15. The method of claim 14 wherein said site of natural gas is within the magnetic latitudes that encompass Alaska.
1. Technical Field
This invention relates to a method and apparatus for altering at least one selected region normally existing above the earth’s surface and more particularly relates to a method and apparatus for altering said at least one region by initially transmitting electromagnetic radiation from the earth’s surface essentially parallel to and along naturally-occurring, divergent magnetic field lines which extend from the earth’s surface through the region or regions to be altered.
2. Background Art
In the late 1950′s, it was discovered that naturally-occuring belts exist at high altitudes above the earth’s surface, and it is now established that these belts result from charged electrons and ions becoming trapped along the magnetic lines of force (field lines) of the earth’s essentially dipole magnetic field. The trapped electrons and ions are confined along the field lines between two magnetic mirrors which exist at spaced apart points along those field lines. The trapped electrons and ions move in helical paths around their particular field lines and “bounce” back and forth between the magnetic mirrors. These trapped electrons and ions can oscillate along the field lines for long periods of time.
In the past several years, substantial effort has been made to understand and explain the phenomena involved in belts of trapped electrons and ions, and to explore possible ways to control and use these phenomena for beneficial purposes. For example, in the late 1950′s and early 1960′s both the United States and U.S.S.R. detonated a series of nuclear devices of various yields to generate large numbers of charged particles at various altitudes, e.g., 200 kilometers (km) or greater. This was done in order to establish and study artifical belts of trapped electrons and ions. These experiments established that at least some of the extraneous electrons and ions from the detonated devices did become trapped along field lines in the earth’s magnetosphere to form artificial belts which were stable for prolonged periods of time. For a discussion of these experiments see “The Radiation Belt and Magnetosphere”, W. N. Hess, Blaisdell Publishing Co., 1968, pps. 155 et sec.
Other proposals which have been advanced for altering existing belts of trapped electrons and ions and/or establishing similar artificial belts include injecting charged particles from a satellite carrying a payload of radioactive beta-decay material or alpha emitters; and injecting charged particles from a satellite-borne electron accelerator. Still another approach is described in U.S. Pat. No. 4,042,196 wherein a low energy ionized gas, e.g., hydrogen, is released from a synchronous orbiting satellite near the apex of a radiation belt which is naturally-occurring in the earth’s magnetosphere to produce a substantial increase in energetic particle precipitation and, under certain conditions, produce a limit in the number of particles that can be stably trapped. This precipitation effect arises from an enhancement of the whistler-mode and ion-cyclotron mode interactions that result from the ionized gas or “cold plasma” injection.
It has also been proposed to release large clouds of barium in the magnetosphere so that photoionization will increase the cold plasma density, thereby producing electron precipitation through enhanced whistler-mode interactions.
However, in all of the above-mentioned approaches, the mechanisms involved in triggering the change in the trapped particle phenomena must be actually positioned within the affected zone, e.g., the magnetosphere, before they can be actuated to effect the desired change.
The earth’s ionosphere is not considered to be a “trapped” belt since there are few trapped particles therein. The term “trapped” herein refers to situations where the force of gravity on the trapped particles is balanced by magnetic forces rather than hydrostatic or collisional forces. The charged electrons and ions in the ionosphere also follow helical paths around magnetic field lines within the ionosphere but are not trapped between mirrors, as in the case of the trapped belts in the magnetosphere, since the gravitational force on the particles is balanced by collisional or hydrostatic forces.
In recent years, a number of experiments have actually been carried out to modify the ionosphere in some controlled manner to investigate the possibility of a beneficial result. For detailed discussions of these operations see the following papers: (1) Ionospheric Modification Theory; G. Meltz and F. W. Perkins; (2) The Platteville High Power Facility; Carrol et al.; (3) Arecibo Heating Experiments; W. E. Gordon and H. C. Carlson, Jr.; and (4) Ionospheric Heating by Powerful Radio Waves; Meltz et al., all published in Radio Science, Vol. 9, No. 11, November, 1974, at pages 885-888; 889-894; 1041-1047; and 1049-1063, respectively, all of which are incorporated herein by reference. In such experiments, certain regions of the ionosphere are heated to change the electron density and temperature within these regions. This is accomplished by transmitting from earth-based antennae high frequency electromagnetic radiation at a substantial angle to, not parallel to, the ionosphere’s magnetic field to heat the ionospheric particles primarily by ohmic heating. The electron temperature of the ionosphere has been raised by hundreds of degrees in these experiments, and electrons with several electron volts of energy have been produced in numbers sufficient to enhance airglow. Electron concentrations have been reduced by a few percent, due to expansion of the plasma as a result of increased temperature.
In the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) a controlled fusion device at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, all heating is provided by microwaves at the electron cyclotron resonance interaction. A ring of hot electrons is formed at the earth’s surface in the magnetic mirror by a combination of electron cyclotron resonance and stochastic heating. In the EBT, the ring electrons are produced with an average “temperature” of 250 kilo electron volts or kev (2.5.times.10.sup.9 K) and a plasma beta between 0.1 and 0.4; see, “A Theoretical Study of Electron–Cyclotron Absorption in Elmo Bumpy Torus”, Batchelor and Goldfinger, Nuclear Fusion, Vol. 20, No. 4 (1980) pps. 403-418.
Electron cyclotron resonance heating has been used in experiments on the earth’s surface to produce and accelerate plasmas in a diverging magnetic field. Kosmahl et al. showed that power was transferred from the electromagnetic waves and that a fully ionized plasma was accelerated with a divergence angle of roughly 13 degrees. Optimum neutral gas density was 1.7.times.10.sup.14 per cubic centimeter; see, “Plasma Acceleration with Microwaves Near Cyclotron Resonance”, Kosmahl et al., Journal of Applied Physics, Vol. 38, No. 12, Nov., 1967, pps. 4576-4582.
DISCLOSURE OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides a method and apparatus for altering at least one selected region which normally exists above the earth’s surface. The region is excited by electron cyclotron resonance heating of electrons which are already present and/or artifically created in the region to thereby increase the charged particle energy and ultimately the density of the region.
In one embodiment this is done by transmitting circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation from the earth’s surface at or near the location where a naturally-occurring dipole magnetic field (force) line intersects the earth’s surface. Right hand circular polarization is used in the northern hemisphere and left hand circular polarization is used in the southern hemisphere. The radiation is deliberately transmitted at the outset in a direction substantially parallel to and along a field line which extends upwardly through the region to be altered. The radiation is transmitted at a frequency which is based on the gyrofrequency of the charged particles and which, when applied to the at least one region, excites electron cyclotron resonance within the region or regions to heat and accelerate the charged particles in their respective helical paths around and along the field line. Sufficient energy is employed to cause ionization of neutral particles (molecules of oxygen, nitrogen and the like, particulates, etc.) which then become a part of the region thereby increasing the charged particle density of the region. This effect can further be enhanced by providing artificial particles, e.g., electrons, ions, etc., directly into the region to be affected from a rocket, satellite, or the like to supplement the particles in the naturally-occurring plasma. These artificial particles are also ionized by the transmitted electromagnetic radiation thereby increasing charged particle density of the resulting plasma in the region.
In another embodiment of the invention, electron cyclotron resonance heating is carried out in the selected region or regions at sufficient power levels to allow a plasma present in the region to generate a mirror force which forces the charged electrons of the altered plasma upward along the force line to an altitude which is higher than the original altitude. In this case the relevant mirror points are at the base of the altered region or regions. The charged electrons drag ions with them as well as other particles that may be present. Sufficient power, e.g., 10.sup.15 joules, can be applied so that the altered plasma can be trapped on the field line between mirror points and will oscillate in space for prolonged periods of time. By this embodiment, a plume of altered plasma can be established at selected locations for communication modification or other purposes.
In another embodiment, this invention is used to alter at least one selected region of plasma in the ionosphere to establish a defined layer of plasma having an increased charged particle density. Once this layer is established, and while maintaining the transmission of the main beam of circularly polarized electromagnetic radiation, the main beam is modulated and/or at least one second different, modulated electromagnetic radiation beam is transmitted from at least one separate source at a different frequency which will be absorbed in the plasma layer. The amplitude of the frequency of the main beam and/or the second beam or beams is modulated in resonance with at least one known oscillation mode in the selected region or regions to excite the known oscillation mode to propagate a known frequency wave or waves throughout the ionosphere.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
The actual construction, operation, and apparent advantages of this invention will be better understood by referring to the drawings in which like numerals identify like parts and in which:
FIG. 1 is a simplified schematical view of the earth (not to scale) with a magnetic field (force) line along which the present invention is carried out;
FIG. 2 is one embodiment within the present invention in which a selected region of plasma is raised to a higher altitude;
FIG. 3 is a simplified, idealized representation of a physical phenomenon involved in the present invention; and
FIG. 4 is a schematic view of another embodiment within the present invention.
FIG. 5 is a schematic view of an apparatus embodiment within this invention .
BEST MODES FOR CARRYING OUT THE INVENTION
The earth’s magnetic field is somewhat analogous to a dipole bar magnet. As such, the earth’s magnetic field contains numerous divergent field or force lines, each line intersecting the earth’s surface at points on opposite sides of the Equator. The field lines which intersect the earth’s surface near the poles have apexes which lie at the furthest points in the earth’s magnetosphere while those closest to the Equator have apexes which reach only the lower portion of the magnetosphere.
At various altitudes above the earth’s surface, e.g., in both the ionosphere and the magnetosphere, plasma is naturally present along these field lines. This plasma consists of equal numbers of positively and negatively charged particles (i.e., electrons and ions) which are guided by the field line. It is well established that a charged particle in a magnetic field gyrates about field lines, the center of gyration at any instance being called the “guiding center” of the particle. As the gyrating particle moves along a field line in a uniform field, it will follow a helical path about its guiding center, hence linear motion, and will remain on the field line. Electrons and ions both follow helical paths around a field line but rotate in opposite directions. The frequencies at which the electrons and ions rotate about the field line are called gyromagnetic frequencies or cyclotron frequencies because they are identical with the expression for the angular frequencies of gyration of particles in a cyclotron. The cyclotron frequency of ions in a given magnetic field is less than that of electrons, in inverse proportion to their masses.
If the particles which form the plasma along the earth’s field lines continued to move with a constant pitch angle, often designated “alpha”, they would soon impact on the earth’s surface. Pitch angle alpha is defined as the angle between the direction of the earth’s magnetic field and the velocity (V) of the particle. However, in converging force fields, the pitch angle does change in such a way as to allow the particle to turn around and avoid impact. Consider a particle moving along a field line down toward the earth. It moves into a region of increasing magnetic field strength and therefore sine alpha increases. But sine alpha can only increase to 1.0, at which point, the particle turns around and starts moving up along the field line, and alpha decreases. The point at which the particle turns around is called the mirror point, and there alpha equals ninety degrees. This process is repeated at the other end of the field line where the same magnetic field strength value B, namely Bm, exists. The particle again turns around and this is called the “conjugate point” of the original mirror point. The particle is therefore trapped and bounces between the two magnetic mirrors. The particle can continue oscillating in space in this manner for long periods of time. The actual place where a particle will mirror can be calculated from the following:
sin.sup.2 alpha.sub.o =B.sub.o /B.sub.m (1)
alpha.sub.o =equatorial pitch angle of particle
B.sub.o =equatorial field strength on a particular field line
B.sub.m =field strength at the mirror point
Recent discoveries have established that there are substantial regions of naturally trapped particles in space which are commonly called “trapped radiation belts”. These belts occur at altitudes greater than about 500 km and accordingly lie in the magnetosphere and mostly above the ionosphere.
The ionosphere, while it may overlap some of the trapped-particle belts, is a region in which hydrostatic forces govern its particle distribution in the gravitational field. Particle motion within the ionosphere is governed by both hydrodynamic and electrodynamic forces. While there are few trapped particles in the ionosphere, nevertheless, plasma is present along field lines in the ionosphere. The charged particles which form this plasma move between collisions with other particles along similar helical paths around the field lines and although a particular particle may diffuse downward into the earth’s lower atmosphere or lose energy and diverge from its original field line due to collisions with other particles, these charged particles are normally replaced by other available charged particles or by particles that are ionized by collision with said particle. The electron density (N.sub.e) of the plasma will vary with the actual conditions and locations involved. Also, neutral particles, ions, and electrons are present in proximity to the field lines.
The production of enhanced ionization will also alter the distribution of atomic and molecular constituents of the atmosphere, most notably through increased atomic nitrogen concentration. The upper atmosphere is normally rich in atomic oxygen (the dominant atmospheric constituent above 200 km altitude), but atomic nitrogen is normally relatively rare. This can be expected to manifest itself in increased airglow, among other effects.
As known in plasma physics, the characteristics of a plasma can be altered by adding energy to the charged particles or by ionizing or exciting additional particles to increase the density of the plasma. One way to do this is by heating the plasma which can be accomplished in different ways, e.g., ohmic, magnetic compression, shock waves, magnetic pumping, electron cyclotron resonance, and the like.
Since electron cyclotron resonance heating is involved in the present invention, a brief discussion of same is in order. Increasing the energy of electrons in a plasma by invoking electron cyclotron resonance heating, is based on a principle similar to that utilized to accelerate charged particles in a cyclotron. If a plasma is confined by a static axial magnetic field of strength B, the charged particles will gyrate about the lines of force with a frequency given, in hertz, as f.sub.g =1.54.times.10.sup.3 B/A, where: B=magnetic field strength in gauss, and A=mass number of the ion.
Suppose a time-varying field of this frequency is superimposed on the static field B confining the plasma, by passage of a radiofrequency current through a coil which is concentric with that producing the axial field, then in each half-cycle of their rotation about the field lines, the charged particles acquire energy from the oscillating electric field associated with the radio frequency. For example, if B is 10,000 gauss, the frequency of the field which is in resonance with protons in a plasma is 15.4 megahertz.
As applied to electrons, electron cyclotron resonance heating requires an oscillating field having a definite frequency determined by the strength of the confining field. The radio-frequency radiation produces time-varying fields (electric and magnetic), and the electric field accelerates the charged particle. The energized electrons share their energy with ions and neutrals by undergoing collisions with these particles, thereby effectively raising the temperature of the electrons, ions, and neutrals. The apportionment of energy among these species is determined by collision frequencies. For a more detailed understanding of the physics involved, see “Controlled Thermonuclear Reactions”, Glasstone and Lovberg, D. Van Nostrand Company, Inc., Princeton, N.J., 1960 and “The Radiation Belt and Magnetosphere”, Hess, Blaisdell Publishing Company, 1968, both of which are incorporated herein by reference.
Referring now to the drawings, the present invention provides a method and apparatus for altering at least one region of plasma which lies along a field line, particularly when it passes through the ionosphere and/or magnetosphere. FIG. 1 is a simplified illustration of the earth 10 and one of its dipole magnetic force or field lines 11. As will be understood, line 11 may be any one of the numerous naturally existing field lines and the actual geographical locations 13 and 14 of line 11 will be chosen based on a particular operation to be carried out. The actual locations at which field lines intersect the earth’s surface is documented and is readily ascertainable by those skilled in the art.
Line 11 passes through region R which lies at an altitude above the earth’s surface. A wide range of altitudes are useful given the power that can be employed by the practice of this invention. The electron cyclotron resonance heating effect can be made to act on electrons anywhere above the surface of the earth. These electrons may be already present in the atmosphere, ionosphere, and/or magnetosphere of the earth, or can be artificially generated by a variety of means such as x-ray beams, charged particle beams, lasers, the plasma sheath surrounding an object such as a missile or meteor, and the like. Further, artificial particles, e.g., electrons, ions, etc., can be injected directly into region R from an earth-launched rocket or orbiting satellite carrying, for example, a payload of radioactive beta-decay material; alpha emitters; an electron accelerator; and/or ionized gases such as hydrogen; see U.S. Pat. No. 4,042,196. The altitude can be greater than about 50 km if desired, e.g., can be from about 50 km to about 800 km, and, accordingly may lie in either the ionosphere or the magnetosphere or both. As explained above, plasma will be present along line 11 within region R and is represented by the helical line 12. Plasma 12 is comprised of charged particles (i.e., electrons and ions) which rotate about opposing helical paths along line 11.
Antenna 15 is positioned as close as is practical to the location 14 where line 11 intersects the earth’s surface. Antenna 15 may be of any known construction for high directionality, for example, a phased array, beam spread angle (.theta.) type. See “The MST Radar at Poker Flat, Alaska”, Radio Science, Vol. 15, No. 2, Mar.-Apr. 1980, pps. 213-223, which is incorporated herein by reference. Antenna 15 is coupled to transmitter 16 which generates a beam of high frequency electromagnetic radiation at a wide range of discrete frequencies, e.g., from about 20 to about 1800 kilohertz (kHz).
Transmitter 16 is powered by power generator means 17 which is preferably comprised of one or more large, commercial electrical generators. Some embodiments of the present invention require large amounts of power, e.g., up to 10.sup.9 to 10.sup.11 watts, in continuous wave or pulsed power. Generation of the needed power is within the state of the art. Although the electrical generators necessary for the practice of the invention can be powered in any known manner, for example, by nuclear reactors, hydroelectric facilities, hydrocarbon fuels, and the like, this invention, because of its very large power requirement in certain applications, is particularly adapted for use with certain types of fuel sources which naturally occur at strategic geographical locations around the earth. For example, large reserves of hydrocarbons (oil and natural gas) exist in Alaska and Canada. In northern Alaska, particularly the North Slope region, large reserves are currently readily available. Alaska and northern Canada also are ideally located geographically as to magnetic latitudes. Alaska provides easy access to magnetic field lines that are especially suited to the practice of this invention, since many field lines which extend to desirable altitudes for this invention intersect the earth in Alaska. Thus, in Alaska, there is a unique combination of large, accessible fuel sources at desirable field line intersections. Further, a particularly desirable fuel source for the generation of very large amounts of electricity is present in Alaska in abundance, this source being natural gas. The presence of very large amounts of clean-burning natural gas in Alaskan latitudes, particularly on the North Slope, and the availability of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), gas turbine, fuel cell, electrogasdynamic (EGD) electric generators which operate very efficiently with natural gas provide an ideal power source for the unprecedented power requirements of certain of the applications of this invention. For a more detailed discussion of the various means for generating electricity from hydrocarbon fuels, see “Electrical Aspects of Combustion”, Lawton and Weinberg, Clarendon Press, 1969. For example, it is possible to generate the electricity directly at the high frequency needed to drive the antenna system. To do this, typically the velocity of flow of the combustion gases (v), past magnetic field perturbation of dimension d (in the case of MHD), follow the rule:
where f is the frequency at which electricity is generated. Thus, if v=1.78.times.10.sup.6 cm/sec and d=1 cm then electricity would be generated at a frequency of 1.78 mHz.
Put another way, in Alaska, the right type of fuel (natural gas) is naturally present in large amounts and at just the right magnetic latitudes for the most efficient practice of this invention, a truly unique combination of circumstances. Desirable magnetic latitudes for the practice of this invention interest the earth’s surface both northerly and southerly of the equator, particularly desirable latitudes being those, both northerly and southerly, which correspond in magnitude with the magnetic latitudes that encompass Alaska.
Referring now to FIG. 2 a first ambodiment is illustrated where a selected region R.sub.1 of plasma 12 is altered by electron cyclotron resonance heating to accelerate the electrons of plasma 12, which are following helical paths along field line 11.
To accomplish this result, electromagnetic radiation is transmitted at the outset, essentially parallel to line 11 via antenna 15 as right hand circularly polarized radiation wave 20. Wave 20 has a frequency which will excite electron cyclotron resonance with plasma 12 at its initial or original altitude. This frequency will vary depending on the electron cyclotron resonance of region R.sub.1 which, in turn, can be determined from available data based on the altitudes of region R.sub.1, the particular field line 11 being used, the strength of the earth’s magnetic field, etc. Frequencies of from about 20 to about 7200 kHz, preferably from about 20 to about 1800 kHz can be employed. Also, for any given application, there will be a threshhold (minimum power level) which is needed to produce the desired result. The minimum power level is a function of the level of plasma production and movement required, taking into consideration any loss processes that may be dominant in a particular plasma or propagation path.
As electron cyclotron resonance is established in plasma 12, energy is transferred from the electromagnetic radiation 20 into plasma 12 to heat and accelerate the electrons therein and, subsequently, ions and neutral particles. As this process continues, neutral particles which are present within R.sub.1 are ionized and absorbed into plasma 12 and this increases the electron and ion densities of plasma 12. As the electron energy is raised to values of about 1 kilo electron volt (kev), the generated mirror force (explained below) will direct the excited plasma 12 upward along line 11 to form a plume R.sub.2 at an altitude higher than that of R.sub.1.
Plasma acceleration results from the force on an electron produced by a nonuniform static magnetic field (B). The force, called the mirror force, is given by
where .mu. is the electron magnetic moment and .gradient. B is the gradient of the magnetic field, .mu. being further defined as:
W.sub..perp. /B=mV.sub..perp..sup.2 /2B
where W.sub..perp. is the kinetic energy in the direction perpendicular to that of the magnetic field lines and B is the magnetic field strength at the line of force on which the guiding center of the particle is located. The force as represented by equation (2) is the force which is responsible for a particle obeying equation (1).
Since the magnetic field is divergent in region R.sub.1, it can be shown that the plasma will move upwardly from the heating region as shown in FIG. 1 and further it can be shown that
1/2M.sub.e V.sub.e.perp..sup.2 (x).apprxeq.1/2M.sub.e V.sub.e.perp..sup.2 (Y)+1/2M.sub.i V.sub.i.parallel..sup.2 (Y) (3)
where the left hand side is the initial electron transverse kinetic energy; the first term on the right is the transverse electron kinetic energy at some point (Y) in the expanded field region, while the final term is the ion kinetic energy parallel to B at point (Y). This last term is what constitutes the desired ion flow. It is produced by an electrostatic field set up by electrons which are accelerated according to Equation (2) in the divergent field region and pulls ions along with them. Equation (3) ignores electron kinetic energy parallel to B because V.sub.e.parallel. .apprxeq.V.sub.i.parallel., so the bulk of parallel kinetic energy resides in the ions because of their greater masses. For example, if an electromagnetic energy flux of from about 1 to about 10 watts per square centimeter is applied to region R, whose altitude is 115 km, a plasma having a density (N.sub.e) of 10.sup.12 per cubic centimeter will be generated and moved upward to region R.sub.2 which has an altitude of about 1000 km. The movement of electrons in the plasma is due to the mirror force while the ions are moved by ambipolar diffusion (which results from the electrostatic field). This effectively “lifts” a layer of plasma 12 from the ionosphere and/or magnetosphere to a higher elevation R.sub.2. The total energy required to create a plasma with a base area of 3 square kilometers and a height of 1000 km is about 3.times.10.sup.13 joules.
FIG. 3 is an idealized representation of movement of plasma 12 upon excitation by electron cyclotron resonance within the earth’s divergent force field. Electrons (e) are accelerated to velocities required to generate the necessary mirror force to cause their upward movement. At the same time neutral particles (n) which are present along line 11 in region R.sub.1 are ionized and become part of plasma 12. As electrons (e) move upward along line 11, they drag ions (i) and neutrals (n) with them but at an angle .theta. of about 13 degrees to field line 11. Also, any particulates that may be present in region R.sub.1, will be swept upwardly with the plasma. As the charged particles of plasma 12 move upward, other particles such as neutrals within or below R.sub.1, move in to replace the upwardly moving particles. These neutrals, under some conditions, can drag with them charged particles.
For example, as a plasma moves upward, other particles at the same altitude as the plasma move horizontally into the region to replace the rising plasma and to form new plasma. The kinetic energy developed by said other particles as they move horizontally is, for example, on the same order of magnitude as the total zonal kinetic energy of stratospheric winds known to exist.
Referring again to FIG. 2, plasma 12 in region R.sub.1 is moved upward along field line 11. The plasma 12 will then form a plume (cross-hatched area in FIG. 2) which will be relatively stable for prolonged periods of time. The exact period of time will vary widely and be determined by gravitational forces and a combination of radiative and diffusive loss terms. In the previous detailed example, the calculations were based on forming a plume by producing 0.sup.+ energies of 2 ev/particle. About 10 ev per particle would be required to expand plasma 12 to apex point C (FIG. 1). There at least some of the particles of plasma 12 will be trapped and will oscillate between mirror points along field line 11. This oscillation will then allow additional heating of the trapped plasma 12 by stochastic heating which is associated with trapped and oscillating particles. See “A New Mechanism for Accelerating Electrons in the Outer Ionosphere” by R. A. Helliwell and T. F. Bell, Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. 65, No. 6, June, 1960. This is preferably carried out at an altitude of at least 500 km.
The plasma of the typical example might be employed to modify or disrupt microwave transmissions of satellites. If less than total black-out of transmission is desired (e.g., scrambling by phase shifting digital signals), the density of the plasma (N.sub.e) need only be at least about 10.sup.6 per cubic centimeter for a plasma orginating at an altitude of from about 250 to about 400 km and accordingly less energy (i.e., electromagnetic radiation), e.g., 10.sup.8 joules need be provided. Likewise, if the density N.sub.e is on the order of 10.sup.8, a properly positioned plume will provide a reflecting surface for VHF waves and can be used to enhance, interfere with, or otherwise modify communication transmissions. It can be seen from the foregoing that by appropriate application of various aspects of this invention at strategic locations and with adequate power sources, a means and method is provided to cause interference with or even total disruption of communications over a very large portion of the earth. This invention could be employed to disrupt not only land based communications, both civilian and military, but also airborne communications and sea communications (both surface and subsurface). This would have significant military implications, particularly as a barrier to or confusing factor for hostile missiles or airplanes. The belt or belts of enhanced ionization produced by the method and apparatus of this invention, particularly if set up over Northern Alaska and Canada, could be employed as an early warning device, as well as a communications disruption medium. Further, the simple ability to produce such a situation in a practical time period can by itself be a deterring force to hostile action. The ideal combination of suitable field lines intersecting the earth’s surface at the point where substantial fuel sources are available for generation of very large quantitities of electromagnetic power, such as the North Slope of Alaska, provides the wherewithal to accomplish the foregoing in a practical time period, e.g., strategic requirements could necessitate achieving the desired altered regions in time periods of two minutes or less and this is achievable with this invention, especially when the combination of natural gas and magnetohydrodynamic, gas turbine, fuel cell and/or EGD electric generators are employed at the point where the useful field lines intersect the earth’s surface. One feature of this invention which satisfies a basic requirement of a weapon system, i.e., continuous checking of operability, is that small amounts of power can be generated for operability checking purposes. Further, in the exploitation of this invention, since the main electromagnetic beam which generates the enhanced ionized belt of this invention can be modulated itself and/or one or more additional electromagnetic radiation waves can be impinged on the ionized region formed by this invention as will be described in greater detail herein after with respect to FIG. 4, a substantial amount of randomly modulated signals of very large power magnitude can be generated in a highly nonlinear mode. This can cause confusion of or interference with or even complete disruption of guidance systems employed by even the most sophisticated of airplanes and missiles. The ability to employ and transmit over very wide areas of the earth a plurality of electromagnetic waves of varying frequencies and to change same at will in a random manner, provides a unique ability to interfere with all modes of communications, land, sea, and/or air, at the same time. Because of the unique juxtaposition of usable fuel source at the point where desirable field lines intersect the earth’s surface, such wide ranging and complete communication interference can be achieved in a resonably short period of time. Because of the mirroring phenomenon discussed hereinabove, it can also be prolonged for substantial time periods so that it would not be a mere transient effect that could simply be waited out by an opposing force. Thus, this invention provides the ability to put unprecedented amounts of power in the earth’s atmosphere at strategic locations and to maintain the power injection level, particularly if random pulsing is employed, in a manner far more precise and better controlled than heretofore accomplished by the prior art, particularly by the detonation of nuclear devices of various yeilds at various altitudes. Where the prior art approaches yielded merely transitory effects, the unique combination of fuel and desirable field lines at the point where the fuel occurs allows the establishment of, compared to prior art approaches, precisely controlled and long-lasting effects which cannot, practically speaking, simply be waited out. Further, by knowing the frequencies of the various electromagnetic beams employed in the practice of this invention, it is possible not only to interfere with third party communications but to take advantage of one or more such beams to carry out a communications network even though the rest of the world’s communications are disrupted. Put another way, what is used to disrupt another’s communications can be employed by one knowledgeable of this invention as a communications network at the same time. In addition, once one’s own communication network is established, the far-reaching extent of the effects of this invention could be employed to pick up communication signals of other for intelligence purposes. Thus, it can be seen that the disrupting effects achievable by this invention can be employed to benefit by the party who is practicing this invention since knowledge of the various electromagnetic waves being employed and how they will vary in frequency and magnitude can be used to an advantage for positive communication and eavesdropping purposes at the same time. However, this invention is not limited to locations where the fuel source naturally exists or where desirable field lines naturally intersect the earth’s surface. For example, fuel, particularly hydrocarbon fuel, can be transported by pipeline and the like to the location where the invention is to be practiced.
FIG. 4 illustrates another embodiment wherein a selected region of plasma R.sub.3 which lies within the earth’s ionosphere is altered to increase the density thereof whereby a relatively stable layer 30 of relatively dense plasma is maintained within region R.sub.3. Electromagnetic radiation is transmitted at the outset essentially parallel to field line 11 via antenna 15 as a right hand circularly polarized wave and at a frequency (e.g., 1.78 megahertz when the magnetic field at the desired altitude is 0.66 gauss) capable of exciting electron cyclotron resonance in plasma 12 at the particular altitude of plasma 12. This causes heating of the particles (electrons, ions, neutrals, and particulates) and ionization of the uncharged particles adjacent line 11, all of which are absorbed into plasma 12 to increase the density thereof. The power transmitted, e.g., 2.times.10.sup.6 watts for up to 2 minutes heating time, is less than that required to generate the mirror force F required to move plasma 12 upward as in the previous embodiment.
While continuing to transmit electromagnetic radiation 20 from antenna 15, a second electromagnetic radiation beam 31, which is at a defined frequency different from the radiation from antenna 15, is transmitted from one or more second sources via antenna 32 into layer 30 and is absorbed into a portion of layer 30 (cross-hatched area in FIG. 4). The electromagnetic radiation wave from antenna 32 is amplitude modulated to match a known mode of oscillation f.sub.3 in layer 30. This creates a resonance in layer 30 which excites a new plasma wave 33 which also has a frequency of f.sub.3 and which then propogates through the ionosphere. Wave 33 can be used to improve or disrupt communications or both depending on what is desired in a particular application. Of course, more than one new wave 33 can be generated and the various new waves can be modulated at will and in a highly nonlinear fashion.
FIG. 5 shows apparatus useful in this invention, particularly when those applications of this invention are employed which require extremely large amounts of power. In FIG. 5 there is shown the earth’s surface 40 with a well 41 extending downwardly thereinto until it penetrates hydrocarbon producing reservoir 42. Hydrocarbon reservoir 42 produces natural gas alone or in combination with crude oil. Hydrocarbons are produced from reservoir 42 through well 41 and wellhead 43 to a treating system 44 by way of pipe 45. In treater 44, desirable liquids such as crude oil and gas condensates are separated and recovered by way of pipe 46 while undesirable gases and liquids such as water, H.sub.2 S, and the like are separated by way of pipe 47. Desirable gases such as carbon dioxide are separated by way of pipe 48, and the remaining natural gas stream is removed from treater 44 by way of pipe 49 for storage in conventional tankage means (not shown) for future use and/or use in an electrical generator such as a magnetohydrodynamic, gas turbine, fuel cell or EGD generator 50. Any desired number and combination of different types of electric generators can be employed in the practice of this invention. The natural gas is burned in generator 50 to produce substantial quantities of electricity which is then stored and/or passed by way of wire 51 to a transmitter 52 which generates the electromagnetic radiation to be used in the method of this invention. The electromagnetic radiation is then passed by way of wire 53 to antenna 54 which is located at or near the end of field line 11. Antenna 54 sends circularly polarized radiation wave 20 upwards along field line 11 to carry out the various methods of this invention as described hereinabove.
Of course, the fuel source need not be used in its naturally-occurring state but could first be converted to another second energy source form such as hydrogen, hydrazine and the like, and electricity then generated from said second energy source form.
It can be seen from the foregoing that when desirable field line 11 intersects earth’s surface 40 at or near a large naturally-occurring hydrocarbon source 42, exceedingly large amounts of power can be very efficiently produced and transmitted in the direction of field lines. This is particularly so when the fuel source is natural gas and magnetohydrodynamic generators are employed. Further, this can all be accomplished in a relatively small physical area when there is the unique coincidence of fuel source 42 and desirable field line 11. Of course, only one set of equipment is shown in FIG. 5 for sake of simplicity. For a large hydrocarbon reservoir 42, a plurality of wells 41 can be employed to feed one or more storage means and/or treaters and as large a number of generators 55 as needed to power one or more transmitters 52 and one or more antennas 54. Since all of the apparatus 44 through 54 can be employed and used essentially at the sight where naturally-occurring fuel source 42 is located, all the necessary electromagnetic radiation 20 is generated essentially at the same location as fuel source 42. This provides for a maximum amount of usable electromagnetic radiation 20 since there are no significant storage or transportation losses to be incurred. In other words, the apparatus is brought to the sight of the fuel source where desirable field line 11 intersects the earth’s surface 40 on or near the geographical location of fuel source 42, fuel source 42 being at a desirable magnetic latitude for the practice of this invention, for example, Alaska.
The generation of electricity by motion of a conducting fluid through a magnetic field, i.e., magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), provides a method of electric power generation without moving mechanical parts and when the conducting fluid is a plasma formed by combustion of a fuel such as natural gas, an idealized combination of apparatus is realized since the very clean-burning natural gas forms the conducting plasma in an efficient manner and the thus formed plasma, when passed through a magnetic field, generates electricity in a very efficient manner. Thus, the use of fuel source 42 to generate a plasma by combustion thereof for the generation of electricity essentially at the site of occurrence of the fuel source is unique and ideal when high power levels are required and desirable field lines 11 intersect the earth’s surface 40 at or near the site of fuel source 42. A particular advantage for MHD generators is that they can be made to generate large amounts of power with a small volume, light weight device. For example, a 1000 megawatt MHD generator can be construed using superconducting magnets to weigh roughly 42,000 pounds and can be readily air lifted.
Method of modifying weather
United States Patent 6,315,213 / Cordani / November 13, 2001
A method for artificially modifying the weather by seeding rain clouds of a storm with suitable cross-linked aqueous polymer. The polymer is dispersed into the cloud and the wind of the storm agitates the mixture causing the polymer to absorb the rain. This reaction forms a gelatinous substance which precipitate to the surface below. Thus, diminishing the clouds ability to rain.
|Methods For Modding Weather: US Patent 6,315,213||SelectShow>|
Inventors: Cordani; Peter (1374 N. Killian Dr., Lake Park, FL 33403)
Filed: June 21, 2000
1. A method for artificially modifying weather by seeding a rain cloud comprising:
2. The method of claim 1 wherein said dispersion of aqueous solidifier is from an aircraft traversing the cloud.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein said dispersion of aqueous solidifier is from the surface below.
4. The cross-linked aqueous polymer of claim 1 wherein said polymer is a cross-linked modified polyacrylamides.
5. The cross-linked polymer of 1 wherein said material is between 50 and 4000 microns.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the amount of said aqueous solidifier needed is precalculated based upon the size of the storm and the absorption properties of said aqueous solidifier.
7. The methods of claim 1 wherein said aqueous solidifier is biodegradable and nonhazardous.
This invention relates generally to weather modification and in particular to the use of polymers to absorb aqueous solutions capable of modifying a weather situation.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
Hurricanes, tropical storms, typhoons, and the like weather patterns can cause severe damage to land, buildings, and living creatures. The resulting damage from even an isolated event can be billions of dollars as evidenced by Hurricane Andrew.
Cloud seeding is a known process for artificially modifying the weather by injecting a composition into a cloud for formation of an ice freezing nuclei. Silver iodide is a well known substance used for cloud seeding. Ice freezing nuclei have the effect of creating rain, reducing hail, and possibly preventing rain by overseeding.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,174,498 discloses a cloud seeding material useful for seeding supercooled clouds in order to augment rainfall. The material used in seeding is defined as a aliphatic long-chain alcohol.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,600,147 discloses a cloud seeding method of inserting liquid propane from a rocket. The liquid propane is used to generate large numbers of ice crystals in supercooled clouds.
U.S. Pat. No. 5,357,865 discloses yet another method of cloud seeding. This invention includes the use of a pyrotechnic composition such as potassium chlorate or potassium perchlorate which act as nuclei for precipitable water drop formation.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,096,005 discloses a pyrotechnic cloud seeding composition comprising silver iodate and a fuel from the consisting of aluminum and magnesium.
Thus, the prior art teachings are directed to methods of creating rain. What is lacking in the art is a method of lessening the wind velocities of a storm.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
The instant application discloses a method of modifying weather by seeding storm clouds with a polymer. The storm clouds are seeded by dispersing a superabsorbent polymer into the cloud in sufficient quantities to cause a large absorption of water. The reaction of the water with the polymer creates a gel-like substance that precipitates to the surface. Thus, causing an internal constriction with the cloud to lessen storm velocities.
A superabsorbent polymer is a resin capable of absorbing water up to several thousands times as its own weight. These superabsorbent polymers are prepared from water-soluble polymers, but have cross-linking structures which render the polymers water-insoluble. By taking water-soluble ethylenically unsaturated monomers which readily undergo vinyl polymerizaton, such as acrylamide, with the use of cross linking agents, a polymer can be produced that is of uniform small size, has a high gel capacity, is highly insoluble, but highly water swellable i.e. a superabsorbent polymer. (Gel capacity refers to the property of the water swollen polymer to resist viscosity changes as a result of mechanical working or milling.)
Superabsorbent polymers can be dehydrated to a powder. When the powder is added to an aqueous solution and agitated, the polymer is able to absorb many times its weight of the water molecules and a gel-like substance is formed. Superabsorbent polymers are particularly suited for uses where rapid asorption of aqueous fluid is desired or for uses where the swelling properties in water are employed.
Accordingly, it is an objective of the instant invention to present a method for artificially modifying weather wherein a polymer is used to cause wind dissipation by heaving weighting condensation with the clouds.
It is another objective of the instant invention to present a method for seeding a rain cloud with a cross-linked polymer such that the wind of the storm provides the agitation for the reaction of the polymer with the water.
It is an additional objective of the instant invention to present a method for modifying storms such that the solid end product is biodegradable and nonhazardous.
Other objectives and advantages of this invention will become apparent from the following description wherein are set forth, by way of example, certain embodiments of this invention.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
The present invention relates to a method for artificially modifying weather by solidifying portions of a cloud in a storm such as a hurricane, by introducing polymers into the cloud. This method utilizes “superabsorbent” aqueous based polymers, preferably cross linked modified polyacrylamides which can be used in any application where aqueous solidification is permissible. An example of a superabsorbent aqueous based polymer is manufactured by JRM Chemical Inc. under the trademark H-series.
In the present invention, a solid form of the superabsorbent polymer, such as a powder, is introduced into the rain clouds of a storm in a suitable manner, for instance a aircraft may traverse the storm and release the polymer seeds or they may be released from a seeding flare delivered from the surface or from an aircraft. The amount of polymer needed is predetermined based upon the size and severity of the storm along with the absorption capacity of the polymer used. The wind of the storm provides the agitation that causes the polymer to bind with the water forming a gel-like substance. As a result of this method, wind based water storms can be artificially modified.
The use of a biodegradable polymer allows for safe use of the ocean wherein the high salinity of the water will expedite the degradation of the material. Various biodegradable superabsorbent polymers include carboxy-methylcellulose, alginic acid, cross-linked starches, cross-linked polyamino acids and a cross-linked modified polyacrylamides.
In a dry state the preferred polymer may be considered a particle having a diameter less than 4000 microns but greater than 50 microns. In a swollen state the particle may have a diameter greater than three hundred times its weight. In a totally water-swollen state, the particles contain up to about 99.98 weight percent of water and a little as about 0.1 weight percent of polymer. Thus, such particles could hold from ten to thousands of times their own weight. By seeding a leading edge of a violent storm, such as a hurricane, the winds cause a mix of the material wherein moisture is absorbed by the material causing a shearing effect. The shearing effect causes the polymers to absorb, lose, and reabsorb water countless times. During this exchange, the weight of the water being transferred allowing for wind shearing that assists in lessening the velocity of the wind.
The shearing forces are affected by the nature of the interactions between the particles during such collisions. When attractive forces dominate, the particles will aggregate and the dispersion may destabilize.
Example: A hurricane is seeded with approximately 30,000 lbs of a superabsorbent aqueous based polymer by use of a transport plane flying through the leading edge of the storm. Within twenty seconds the polymer will obtain over 70 percent of its absorption capacity or nearly three hundred times its weight. The winds of the storm will continue to disperse the materials causing a form of internal flocculation disrupting the feeding nature of the storm. When presented close to land, the storm will not have sufficient time to reform to its previous strength.
It is to be understood that while I have illustrated and described certain forms of my invention, it is not to be limited to the specific forms herein described. It will be apparent to those skilled in the art that various changes may be made without departing from the scope of the invention and the invention is not to be considered limited to what is shown in the drawings and described in the specification.
Process for absorbing ultraviolet radiation using dispersed melanin
United States Patent / 5,286,979 / Berliner / February 15, 1994
This invention is a process for absorbing ultraviolet radiation in the atmosphere by dispersing melanin, its analogs, or derivatives into the atmosphere. By appropriate choice of melanin composition, size of melanin dispersoids, and their concentration, the melanin will absorb some quantity of ultraviolet radiation and thereby lessen its overall effect on the critters who would normally absorb such radiation.
|Asorbing UV : US Patent / 5,286,979||SelectShow>|
Inventors:Berliner; David L. (380 Selby La., Atherton, CA 94027); Leong; Helen (146 Atherton Ave., Atherton, CA 94027)
Filed: June 7, 1993
We claim as our invention:
1. A method for absorbing ultraviolet radiation in the atmosphere comprising the step of introducing a dispersed composition comprising melanins into the path of the ultraviolet radiation.
2. The method of claim 1 where the dispersed composition comprises neat melanins.
3. The method of claim 1 where the dispersed composition comprises melanin solution.
4. The method of claim 1 where the dispersed composition comprises a melanin suspension.
5. The method of claim 1 where the dispersed composition comprises particles containing melanin.
6. The method of claim 5 where the dispersed composition comprises a polymeric particle comprising melanin.
7. The method of claim 1 where the dispersed composition comprises a particle size of 0.5-100 microns.
8. The method of claim 6 where the polymeric particles are polymeric beads having an average diameter between about 0.5 microns to 50 microns.
9. The method of claim 8 where the polymeric beads have an average diameter in the range of 0.5 microns to 10 microns.
10. The method of claim 6 where the polymeric particles contain melanin-comprised methylmethacrylate ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate copolymer.
11. The method of claim 1 where the melanin is produced from melanin precursors selected from the group of L-dopa, tyrosine, tryptophan, and cysteine.
12. The method of claim 11 where the melanin precursor is L-dopa.
13. The method of claim 1 where the ultraviolet radiation has a wavelength of 250-400 nanometers.
14. The method of claim 13 where the wavelength of the ultraviolet radiation is 320-400 nanometers.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention is a process for absorbing ultraviolet radiation in the atmosphere by dispersing melanins, their analogs, or derivatives into the atmosphere. By appropriate choice of melanin composition, size of melanin dispersoids, and their concentration, the melanins will absorb some quantity of ultraviolet radiation and thereby lessen its overall effect on the inhabitants on the Earth’s surface who would normally encounter such radiation.
BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
This invention is a process for the introduction of melanins, neat, solvated, suspended, encapsulated, or otherwise introduced as a fine dispersion of melanin containing compositions to act as absorbers of ultraviolet radiation. Depending upon melanin chosen and the method of introducing it into the atmosphere, the melanin will absorb variously UVA, UVB, or UVC ultraviolet radiation.
Ozone is a form of oxygen found in trace quantities throughout the atmosphere; the highest concentrations are located in a layer of the lower stratosphere found between the altitudes of 45,000 feet and 90,000 feet. Ozone found in the high atmosphere is typically produced by the dissociation of molecular oxygen and at the lower atmosphere or surface is produced by the dissociation of nitrogen oxides. The energy for such dissociation is supplied by solar ultraviolet radiation.
At the earth’s surface, ozone is a pollutant which can be harmful to the respiratory system, hastens oxidation of paints, tires, and whatever else may be found in its path. Ozone also plays an important part in the formation of photochemical smog. In the upper atmosphere, the trace amount of ozone absorbs much of the ultraviolet radiation having a wavelength between 240 and 320 nanometers. This radiation is lethal to such organisms as algae and bacteria and damages the surface cells of higher plants and animals. It is responsible for the sunburn of human skin and otherwise damages the DNA material of those cells. High skin cancer incidence is also observed where the surface intensities of ultraviolet light having a wavelength of 290 and 320 nanometers are found. These ultraviolet wavelengths are not completely absorbed by the ozone layer.
Although the ozone layer in the upper atmosphere has been studies since the early 1950s, the thinning of this protective layer was not considered serious until a sudden decrease in the thickness in the layer by 3% was discovered in the 1970s. There has been concern that supersonic aircraft designed to fly in the lower stratosphere (such as the Concorde) produce NO.sub.x in their engines by the thermal decomposition and recombination of the nitrogen and oxygen in the air.
Initial computations suggested that the presence of this NO.sub.x would result in significant depletion of stratospheric ozone. However, later chemical studies have determined that supersonic aircraft have a very much smaller effect on stratospheric ozone than originally thought.
An additional concern has been voiced that the use of various Freons, in particular CFCl.sub.3 and CF.sub.2 Cl.sub.2, cause depletion of ozone through their decomposition (through contact with ultraviolet light) and dissociation into lower chlorofluorocarbons and monochlorine. The chlorine singlet reacts with the ozone to produce oxygen. Freon chlorofluorocarbons are in the process of being phased out but are currently used as refrigerants, as blowing or foaming agents for plastic foams, and as aerosol can propellants. Some computational chemical models predict that chlorofluoromethanes are responsible for between 1% and 7% decrease in stratospheric ozone concentration during the next few years.
Other causes may produce substantial effects in ozone production or destruction; increases in CO.sub.2 due to combustion of fossil fuels may lead to a cooling of the stratosphere and thus a decrease in the rate of ozone destruction. But whatever the cause, significant downward changes in the concentration of ozone in that layer will increase the incidence of various ultraviolet light wavelengths at the Earth’s surface.
This invention is a method for at least a partial alleviation of some of the consequences of that ozone layer depletion.
The use of melanin to protect human skin is known. Particularly, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,806,360 and 4,855,144, to Leong et al., show variously melanin-containing compositions made of small polymeric particles and methods of producing the particles. The resulting compositions may be used as sunscreens in a variety of products such as sunscreen products per se or as a component of cosmetic compositions.
U.S. Pat. No. 4,961,754 to Grollier, shows a powder containing very small, inert, inorganic particles having on their surface melanin pigments resulting from the oxidation of an indole dye of a specific formula.
Other uses for melanin are in protecting human eyes from ultraviolet radiation. For instance, U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,698,374; 5,036,115; and 5,047,447 all to Gallas, show a variety of devices, primarily optical devices such as sun glasses using melanin incorporated in a layer of the lens or device.
None of these disclosures suggests the use of finely dispersed melanin in the atmosphere to protect those beneath the melanin dispersion or cloud.
A variety of materials have been introduced into the atmosphere for an equally wide variety of reasons. For instance, U.S. Pat. No. 3,608,810 and 3,608,820, both to Kooser, suggest the concept of dispensing surfactants, salts, water-soluble poly-electrolytes, or mixtures thereof to disperse fogs or to cause rain. Similarly, U.S. Pat. No. 3,802,624 to Kuhne et al., suggests the use of a combination of sugar alcohols, saccharides, and polyvinyl alcohol in combination with low melting point alkane-diols, triols, or polyols. The mixture is sprayed into fog or clouds in a finely-dispersed form to either coalesce fog or dispel clouds.
A classic silver iodide cloud seeding generator is shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,126,155 to Lohse. The device operates by using a method similar to that found in a carburetor. A fluid under pressure is introduced into a venturi. The air flowing through the venturi is accelerated and disperses the silver iodide-containing solution into small droplets.
In Cicerone et al., “Reduced Ozone Depletions in a Model with Hydrocarbon Injections”, Science 254, pp.1191-1194 (1991), the concept of introducing hydrocarbons into the upper atmosphere is found. This is said to be a method for removing active chlorine from the atmosphere. Chlorine singlets are believed to result in reaction of ozone to form oxygen.
In Chang et al., U.S. Pat. No. 5,003,186, is described a process for introducing Welsbach materials and metal oxides which have high emissivities (and hence low reflectivities) into the atmosphere. Such particles would absorb long wavelength energy and radiate it into space.
Another venturi passage used for atmospheric seeding is shown in U.S. Pat. No. 3,429,507 to Jones. Other known methods for dispersing materials into the atmosphere include those shown in U.S. Pat. No. 4,412,654 to Yates et al., and 4,948,050 to Picot. The Yates patent shows an airfoil-shaped body which has an open slot at the trailing edge. Located within the interior of the airfoil is a distributor having a series of small orifices which spray droplets toward the trailing edge of the airfoil with its open slot. As the dispersed liquid leaves the slot it is even further comminuted into much smaller droplets.
The Picot patent shows a rotary liquid spray atomizer for aerial spraying. The atomizer is driven by a variable speed motor which may be driven by a variable speed AC generator.
None of the methods or devices suggested for dispersing materials into the atmosphere suggests dispersing melanin for any purpose.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
This invention is to a process for dispersing melanins incorporated into microsize microspheres into the atmosphere at a level below the ozone layer to absorb UV rays, particularly those having a wavelength of 250-400 nanometers and more particularly those at 320-400 nanometers, coming through the ozone layer before they reach the Earth’s surface.
Melanins are a major class of broad-spectrum ultraviolet-absorbing organic polymers found naturally in the human epidermis. For the purposes of this invention they are defined and classified as in the work Melanins by R.A. Nicolaus, 1968 (Paris, France). Melanins are typically formed in the epidermis by the enzymatic conversion of L-tyrosine into L-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl alanine, commonly referred to as L-dopa. The L-dopa is then further converted into melanin by known biologic pathways. The primary class of melanins produced in the human epidermis is eumelanins. Members of this class are characterized by a black-brown color which is derived from tyrosine. Pheomelanins are the second class of melanins, characterized by reddish-brown color and containing cysteine-derived units in addition to tyrosine-derived units.
A third group of melanins, allomelanins (the word itself meaning “other melanins”), are formed from nitrogen-free precursors, primarily catechol, and 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalenes. Quinones are the usual intermediates in allomelanin synthesis.
Melanins particularly suitable for use in the process of this invention include any of the wide variety of black-brown and reddish-brown polymers of indole 5,6-quinone and 5,6-dihydroxyindole to carboxylic acid which occur naturally in the skin, hair, retina and elsewhere in humans, as well as in a variety of other organisms. In particular, eumelanins, which are black-brown polymers composed mainly of tyrosine-derived units and a few pheomelanins, which are composed of cysteine-derived units in addition to tyrosine-derived units are each suitable. Melanin precursors may include but are not limited to tyrosine, L-dopa, D-dopa, catechol, 5-hydroxyindole, tyramine, dopamine, m-aminophenol, o-aminophenol, p-aminophenol, 4-aminocatechol, 2-hydroxyl-1,4-naphthaquinone, 4-metholcatechol, 3,4-dihydroxynaphthalene, gallic acid, resorcinol, 2-chloroaniline, p-chloroanisole, 2-amino-p-cresol, 4,5-dihydroxynaphthalene, 2,7-disulfonic acid, o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, and other related substances which are capable of being oxidized to tan, brown or black compounds capable of absorbing ultraviolet radiation. Combinations of precursors are also suitable.
The melanins may be dispersed in pure form. However, several melanins are somewhat viscous and hard to handle. If used without a solid carrier, they are preferably dissolved in a suitable aqueous solvent solution. They may also be suspended in a suitable liquid.
Since the preferred size of the melanin-containing particles introduced into the atmosphere is between 0.5 and 100 microns, preferably 0.5 to 50 microns and most preferably from 0.5 to 10 microns, the melanins may be incorporated in a solid carrier, either resin-type or of a polymeric base. Processes for producing suitable polymeric particles including melanin compositions are shown in U.S. Pat. Nos. 4,806,360 and 4,855,140, to Leong et al., discussed above, the entirety of which are incorporated by notice.
The 4,806,360 patent discloses a process for producing polymer beads having average diameters from about 5 to about 100 microns. The cross-linked polymer beads are produced either from polyethylenically saturated monomers, i.e., those having at least two sites of saturation, or from monoethylenically saturated monomers in the presence of one or more polyethylenically unsaturated monomers. In the latter case, the percentage of cross-linking is controlled by balancing the relative amounts of monoethylenically unsaturated monomer and polyethylenically unsaturated monomer. Though a variety of polyolefinic polymer beads are suitable for encapsulating the melanins, a particularly desirable polymer bead is formed by the copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and ethyleneglycol dimethyl methacrylate.
The 4,85,144 patent discloses the use of polymeric particles which have rigid structures having a substantially non-collapsible pore structure. The particles made according to this invention are especially desirable in that the beads are very easy to handle and may be dispensed and dispersed into the atmosphere with great ease. The most desirable polymer bead is produced from copolymerization of methyl methacrylate and ethylene glycol methyl methacrylate as was the 4,806,360 patent particle. Both 4,806,360 and 4,855,144 patents teach processes for including the melanin into the polymeric beads.
Other appropriate physical forms for the melanin particles include encapsulated melanins and vesicles or liposome-type particles. Methods of producing these particles are well-known.
The melanin, solution or suspension of melanins, or polymer supported melanins are dispersed at an appropriate altitude, e.g., 35,000 to 45,000 feet, using known methods of introducing the melanin containing moiety into the atmosphere. The concentration of melanin-containing materials need not be high since they are ideally introduced merely to counteract the thinning of the ozone layer in a particular area. The method of introducing these materials is not especially critical so long as they are dispersed in the size range in which they will remain in the atmosphere for significant periods of time. As noted above, the use of particles in the range of 0.5 to 100 microns will assure such suspension. Methods for producing particles of that size are discussed above and the processes for distributing the melanins, be they neat liquid, solvated liquid, in a suspension, or supported in the polymeric materials discussed above are known. The processes for distributing any of these compositions are known and suitable ones were discussed above in the Background of the Invention.
The invention has been described in some detail by way of illustration for the purposes of understanding its scope. However, it should be apparent that certain changes within the scope of the appended claims and their equivalents will be within the breadth of the invention as described.
Liquid atomizing apparatus for aerial spraying
United States Patent / 4,948,050 / Picot / August 14, 1990
A rotary liquid spray atomizer for aerial spraying is driven by a variable speed motor, driven in turn by power from a variable speed AC generator. The generator is driven from a power take-off from the engine of the spraying aircraft, a drive assembly includes a device for controlling the speed of the generator relative to the speed of the engine. The particularly convenient drive assembly between the generator and the power take-off is a hydraulic motor, which drives the generator, driven by a hydraulic pump driven from the power take-off. The speed of the hydraulic motor can be controllably varied. Conveniently the AC motor is a synchronous motor.
|Atomizing For Spraying: US Patent / 4,948,050||SelectShow>|
Inventors: Picot; Jules J. C. (Simcoe Court, Fredericton, N.B. E3B 2W9, CA)
Filed: February 6, 1989
1. A liquid atomizing apparatus for aerial spraying comprising:
a rotatable atomizer;
a variable speed AC electric motor for driving said atomizer;
an AC generator for producing electric power to drive said electric motor at a speed related to the speed of said generator; and
variable speed drive means for connection between said generator and a power take-off of an engine of an aircraft used for aerial spraying, said drive means including means for controllably varying the speed of a motor means, said motor means controllably varying the speed of said generator relative to the speed of said engine.
2. A liquid atomizing apparatus for aerial spraying comprising:
a rotatable atomizer;
a variable speed AC electric motor for driving said atomizer;
an AC generator for producing electric power to drive said electric motor at a speed related to the speed of said generator; and
variable speed drive means for connection between said generator and a power take-off of an engine of an aircraft used for aerial spraying, said drive means including means for controllably varying the speed of said generator relative to the speed of said engine, said variable speed drive means includes a variable speed hydraulic motor, pump means connected to said variable speed hydraulic motor, and control means positioned between said pump means and said variable speed hydraulic motor for controlling the flow of liquid from the pump means to the hydraulic motor to vary the speed thereof.
3. An apparatus as claimed in claim 2, including means for feeding an output from said variable speed AC electric motor, indicative of the speed of said variable speed AC electric motor, to said control means.
4. An apparatus as claimed in claim 2, comprising a plurality of atomizers each driven by a variable speed synchronous AC motor, and means for connecting each AC motor to said generator.
5. An apparatus as claimed in claim 2, said pump means comprising an hydraulic pump, and including:
a hydraulic liquid reservoir;
means connecting an outlet of said reservoir to an inlet of said hydraulic pump;
a pipe connecting an outlet of said hydraulic pump to an inlet of said control means;
a pipe connecting an outlet of said control system to an inlet of said hydraulic motor;
and a pipe connecting an outlet of said hydraulic pump to an inlet of said reservoir.
6. An apparatus as claimed in claim 5, including by-pass means extending between said control means and said reservoir.
7. An apparatus as claimed in claim 5, wherein said reservoir, said hydraulic pump, said control means, said variable speed hydraulic motor and said generator are in the form of a unitary assembly.
FIELD OF THE INVENTION
This invention relates to a liquid atomizing apparatus for aerial spraying, and in particular relates to the provision of apparatus which will give a liquid or solid-in-liquid suspension spray having predetermined characteristics independent of the speed of the aircraft carrying out the spraying.
SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
In a conventional spray system, a series of rotatable baskets are assembled on a wing of the aircraft. In this system, each basket is rotated by a propeller which is rotated by the passage of the aircraft through the air. The liquid to be sprayed is fed into the baskets. The baskets are perforated and the fluid is emitted centrifugally through the perforations. The droplet size is very dependent on the speed of rotation of the basket.
With the speed of rotation of the basket being determined by plane speed, the droplet size is determined. When the plane varies speed, for example slowing down to turn round or other manoeuvre, the droplet size increases. This is inefficient in that more liquid is required to cover an area with large drops rather than with small drops, since it has been determined that a range of drop sizes between 15 microns and 55 microns is most desirable for aerial spraying of coniferous tree foliage.
A further disadvantage is the drag occasioned by the propellers for the atomizing devices, increasing fuel consumption.
PREFERRED FEATURES OF THE INVENTION
The present invention provides for the atomizers to be driven by an electrical motor. DC motors have been used but require heavy current supply not readily available on many aircraft. In the present invention, the atomizers are driven by relatively high voltage AC motors, preferably synchronous motors, the power for which is supplied from an AC generator which is driven from a power take-off on an aircraft engine by a variable speed system. Preferably, the generator driven by a hydraulic motor which is driven by a hydraulic pump, driven by a power take-off, on an engine of the aircraft. A fluid control system is provided for controlling the speed of the hydraulic motor with the input of a frequency signal from a tachometer associated with at least one of the spraying units. This is then universally applicable to any aircraft with a power take-off attachment point.
In its broadest concept, a liquid atomizing apparatus for aerial spraying comprises a rotatable atomizer, a variable speed AC motor driving the atomizer, an AC generator for producing electric power to drive the motor at a speed relating to the power generator, and a drive means for connection between the generator and a power take-off of an engine of an aircraft used for aerial spraying, drive means including means for controlling the speed of the generator relative to the speed of the engine.
In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the present invention, a fluid atomizing apparatus for aerial spraying comprises: at least one rotatable liquid atomizer driven by a synchronous AC electric motor; an AC generator for producing electrical power for driving electric motor; a variable speed hydraulic motor for driving said AC generator; a hydraulic pump connected to said hydraulic motor and control means between said pump and said motor for variably controlling the flow of liquid from the pump to the motor; and means for connecting the hydraulic pump to a power take-off on an engine of an aircraft.
A preferred embodiment of the invention discloses a method of aerial spraying comprising providing an aerial spraying aircraft with a liquid atomizing apparatus, said apparatus including a rotatable atomizer; a variable speed AC electric motor for driving said atomizer; an AC generator for producing electric power to drive said electric motor at a speed related to the speed of said generator; and drive means for connection between said generator and a power take-off of an engine of an aircraft used for aerial spraying, said drive means including means for controlling the speed of said generator relative to the speed of said engine, connecting said drive means to said power take-off of said aircraft engine, to actuate said pump means when the aircraft engine is operating to drive said motor means, and controlling the speed of said motor means by controlling the output of said AC generator while controlling the output of said pump means to thereby drive said rotatable liquid atomizer and dispense atomizer spray.
DESCRIPTION OF THE VIEW OF THE DRAWING:
The invention will be readily understood by the following description in conjunction with the accompanying drawing which is a diagrammatic illustration of one system, or form of apparatus.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION WITH RESPECT TO THE DRAWINGS:
In the drawing, an engine is indicated at 10 with a power take-off at 11. A hydraulic pump 12 is connected to the power take-off 11 by a connector 13. Liquid, typically oil, is fed to the pump 12 from a reservoir 14, oil from the pump going via a hydraulic fluid control system 15 to hydraulic motor 16. Oil returns to the reservoir 14 from the motor 16. A bypass 17 extends between the control system 15 and the reservoir 14. The fluid control system 15 can be manually controlled, auto-controlled, or both.
The hydraulic motor 16 drives an AC generator 18. A plurality of rotating screen atomizers 19 are shown attached at a wing, depicted generally at 20. Each atomizer is driven by a variable speed AC motor 21.
Liquid is fed to each atomizer through a pipe 22 and flexible tubes 23. Electrical connections 26 extend between generator 18 and motors 21. Exitation is provided at 27. Typically the generator produces power at 208 V, 400 H.sub.z, three phase at 4000 R.P.M.
In the example illustrated, a tachometer connection 28 is provided on at least one of the motors 21, and is connected to the control system 15.
The hydraulic pump provides a controlled, variable oil flow to the hydraulic motor, to drive the generator 18 at a controlled, variable speed to produce the desired voltage and frequency for operation of the atomizers at a required speed of rotation.
The power required is easily generated, and there is reduced drag on the aircraft. It is possible to maintain the speed of the atomizers constant, and therefor the droplet size is also constant. The invention is very suitable for small fields and similar areas, where a constant aircraft speed is not readily achieved during the spray application. The invention can be applied to helicopters, where other aircraft could not be conveniently used.
The number of atomizers used can vary according to requirements. Where, for any reason, it is desired to alter the droplet size, this can very readily be provided by adjustment of the control system 15. It is not necessary to change the atomizer. The speed of the electric motors, and atomizers, is independent of the speed of the engine 10 and of the forward speed of the aircraft.
The hydraulic pump 12, control system 15, hydraulic motor 16 and reservoir 14 can be made into a unitary assembly for mounting on the aircraft, and conceivably could be mounted on the engine which is driving the pump 12. Existing structure on an aircraft for holding conventional atomizer sprays can be used for mounting the electrically driven atomizers used with the present invention. The existing spray liquid containers and feed mechanism can be utilized, enabling the invention to be used on existing spraying aircraft.
Laminar microjet atomizer and method of aerial spraying of liquids
United States Patent / 4,412,654 Yates / November 1, 1983
A laminar microjet atomizer and method of aerial spraying involve the use of a streamlined body having a slot in the trailing edge thereof to afford a quiescent zone within the wing and into which liquid for spraying is introduced. The liquid flows from a source through a small diameter orifice having a discharge end disposed in the quiet zone well upstream of the trailing edge. The liquid released into the quiet zone in the slot forms drops characteristic of laminar flow. Those drops then flow from the slot at the trailing edge of the streamlined body and discharge into the slipstream for free distribution.
|Microjet Atomizer: US Patent / 4,412,654||SelectShow>|
Inventors: Yates; Wesley E. (Davis, CA); Cowden; Robert E. (Davis, CA); Akesson; Norman B. (Davis, CA); Horgan; Paul M. (Woodland, CA)
Current U.S. Class: 239/171; 239/597
This invention was made with Goverment support under grant No. 23-181, awarded by the Department of Agriculture. The Government has certain rights in this invention.
1. A laminar microjet atomizer comprising a hollow support of a streamlined configuration having an upstream portion adapted to lead in a predetermined direction of advance and having a closed leading edge and an open trailing edge, said trailing edge being bifurcated to establish a slot, a source of spray liquid within said hollow support, and means within said hollow support defining a small orifice open to said source and open opposite to said predetermined direction and disposed well upstream of said slot.
2. A device as in claim 1 including a plurality of said discharge orifices arranged parallel to each other and open a direction opposite in said predetermined direction and substantially in a common plane and all within said hollow support.
3. A device as in claim 2 in which all of said discharge orifices terminate in substantially the same transverse plane spaced upstream of said trailing edge.
4. A device as in claim 1 in which said orifice terminates within said support at a point substantially spaced in said predetermined direction upstream of and away from high velocity currents moving past said trailing edge of said streamlined section of said support.
BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
A closed front, hollow airfoil shaped body such as an airplane wing has an open slot at the trailing edge thereof. Liquid from a source in the streamlined body is released through one or more small orifices in a transverse plate well within the hollow body. The orifice axes extend in the direction of advance. The orifices are located in a quiet or protected zone within the body in advance of and opening through the slot in the trailing edge thereof.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE SEVERAL VIEWS OF THE DRAWING
FIG. 1 is a view in isometric perspective, portions being broken away to reduce the figure size and other portions being broken away, showing the interior construction of the atomizing apparatus of the invention incorporated with a specially formed streamlined body, particularly an aircraft wing.
FIG. 2 is a cross-section, the plane of which is indicated by the line 2–2 of FIG. 1.
It is to be noted that the drawings herein are not to scale or are not dimensional since many of the dimensions and relationships herein are too small to be shown to scale.
There is a considerable need for the careful release of spray materials, usually in agricultural areas, and for various reasons. This is ordinarily accomplished by releasing the spray liquid from an airplane flying over the desired areas. Customarily, the drop formation is haphazard or random so that the spray does not effectuate the intended purposes as well as desired. It has been determined that much of the difficulty arises from random or inconsistent and uncontrolled formation of liquid droplets for the spray.
In order to overcome the problems of aerial spraying and to provide an improved spray formation and production of an improved spray pattern, we have provided a particular streamlined body such as an aircraft wing 6. While the streamlined body may be of any sort and may be used in various environments, the arrangement herein is readily adapted for use in an airplane and so is described in that environment. This wing may be part of a usual aircraft structure, diagrammatically illustrated at 7, and has the customary streamlined configuration in end elevation. The wing departs from the normal shape in that while the closed leading edge 8 of the wing is standard, the trailing edge 9 thereof is made up of an upper edge 11 and a spaced, lower edge 12 lying on opposite sides of an open slot 13. The slot opens into the undisturbed, quiet interior 14 of the wing and terminates rather abruptly in a transverse vertical plane at the trailing margin of the wing.
In the interior of the wing there is provided a reservoir 15 or source for liquid to be sprayed. Conveniently, this is a transversely extending tube square in cross-section to provide a trailing face 16. The liquid discharges from the tube 15 through a plurality of relatively small orifices 17 etched through the face 16 and arranged in a transverse line and with the axis of each orifice disposed longitudinally in a horizontal plane. The orifices are of the order of 100 microns in diameter and open within the interior of the wing and are spaced substantially from the trailing edge 9 thereof and within a quiet zone 18. The orifices 17 are all in substantially the same transverse vertical plane so that they all are well ahead of and out of the slipstream of the wing. They all are well within the quiet or protected volume inside the wing itself.
In the use of the device in a high velocity air stream; for example, with the wing flying, liquid flows out in a laminar fashion through the parallel orifices 17 and forms laminar liquid jets 19 that break up longitudinally into drops 20 of the generally desired spherical form. That is because the drop formation is not subject to extraneous aerodynamic forces. The drops form spherically in a protected, laminar flow position. The droplets travel rearwardly, as shown, and finally emerge from the interior of the wing. They emerge through the slot 13 at the trailing edge of the wing and only then become subject to the high velocity but low turbulence airstream behind the wing. The emerged drops are accelerated smoothly in line. Any small satellite drops coalesce with the larger droplets due to the different drag forces on the drops. Having started substantially at a uniform location as laminar jets in a quiet area, the jets tend to disperse quite uniformly. This provides an ultimate nearly uniform size of drops of the desired nature as the uniform droplets leave the spray device consistently to settle on the area being sprayed.
The method of the invention is concomitant with the structure provided and includes the origination of drops from relatively small orifices open to a liquid reservoir. The drops form in a protected zone so that their shape is not disturbed during formation by turbulent, ambient conditions. The drops so formed in a laminar flow region are then released into non-turbulent zones behind the streamlined body for deposition.
It is helpful under certain circumstances to vary the operation by providing within the reservoir 15 or at the orifices, a variation in internal pressure or a vibration to afford a pulsing effect on the liquid. This is accomplished by any appropriate means (not shown) such as a vibrating diaphragm or the like. The vibration or pulsing is not always utilized, but under certain circumstances and with certain materials, is found to be helpful.
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What In The World Are They Spraying (Full Documentary)