Executive Order 13865: National Resilience to Electromagnetic Pulses

Executive Order 13865 of March 26, 2019

Coordinating National Resilience to Electromagnetic Pulses:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the legal guidelines of the United States of America, it’s hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Purpose. An electromagnetic pulse (EMP) has the potential to disrupt, degrade, and harm know-how and demanding infrastructure techniques. Human-made or naturally occurring EMPs can have an effect on giant geographic areas, disrupting parts crucial to the Nation’s safety and financial prosperity, and might adversely have an effect on international commerce and stability. The Federal Government should foster sustainable, environment friendly, and cost-effective approaches to bettering the Nation’s resilience to the consequences of EMPs.

Sec. 2. Definitions. As used on this order:

(a) “Critical infrastructure” means techniques and belongings, whether or not bodily or digital, so very important to the United States that the incapacity or destruction of such techniques and belongings would have a debilitating impression on safety, nationwide financial safety, nationwide public well being or security, or any mixture of these issues.

(b) “Electromagnetic pulse” is a burst of electromagnetic power. EMPs have the potential to negatively have an effect on know-how techniques on Earth and in house. A high-altitude EMP (HEMP) is a sort of human-made EMP that happens when a nuclear gadget is detonated at roughly 40 kilometers or extra above the floor of Earth. A geomagnetic disturbance (GMD) is a sort of pure EMP pushed by a short lived disturbance of Earth’s magnetic area ensuing from interactions with photo voltaic eruptions. Both HEMPs and GMDs can have an effect on giant geographic areas.

(c) “National Critical Functions” means the features of presidency and the personal sector so very important to the United States that their disruption, corruption, or dysfunction would have a debilitating impact on safety, nationwide financial safety, nationwide public well being or security, or any mixture thereof.

(d) “National Essential Functions” means the overarching duties of the Federal Government to lead and maintain the Nation earlier than, throughout, and within the aftermath of a catastrophic emergency, equivalent to an EMP that adversely impacts the efficiency of Government.

(e) “Prepare” and “preparedness” imply the actions taken to plan, arrange, equip, practice, and train to construct and maintain the capabilities essential to stop, defend towards, mitigate the consequences of, reply to, and get well from these threats that pose the best threat to the safety of the Nation. These phrases embody the prediction and notification of impending EMPs.

(f) A “Sector-Specific Agency” (SSA) is the Federal division or company that’s liable for offering institutional data and specialised experience in addition to main, facilitating, or supporting the safety and resilience applications and related actions of its designated crucial infrastructure sector within the all-hazards surroundings. The SSAs are these recognized in Presidential Policy Directive 21 of February 12, 2013 (Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience).

Sec. 3. Policy. (a) It is the coverage of the United States to put together for the consequences of EMPs by means of focused approaches that coordinate whole-of-government actions and encourage private-sector engagement. The Federal Government should present warning of an impending EMP; defend towards, reply Start Printed Page 12042to, and get well from the consequences of an EMP by means of private and non-private engagement, planning, and funding; and forestall adversarial occasions by means of deterrence, protection, and nuclear nonproliferation efforts. To obtain these objectives, the Federal Government shall have interaction in risk-informed planning, prioritize analysis and improvement (R&D) to deal with the wants of crucial infrastructure stakeholders, and, for adversarial threats, seek the advice of Intelligence Community assessments.

(b) To implement the actions directed on this order, the Federal Government shall promote collaboration and facilitate info sharing, together with the sharing of menace and vulnerability assessments, amongst government departments and businesses (businesses), the house owners and operators of crucial infrastructure, and different related stakeholders, as acceptable. The Federal Government shall additionally present incentives, as acceptable, to private-sector companions to encourage innovation that strengthens crucial infrastructure towards the consequences of EMPs by means of the improvement and implementation of greatest practices, rules, and acceptable steerage.

Sec. 4. Coordination. (a) The Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs (APNSA), by means of National Security Council workers and in session with the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), shall coordinate the event and implementation of government department actions to assess, prioritize, and handle the dangers of EMPs. The APNSA shall, on an annual foundation, submit a report to the President summarizing progress on the implementation of this order, figuring out gaps in functionality, and recommending how to deal with these gaps.

(b) To additional the Federal R&D essential to put together the Nation for the consequences of EMPs, the Director of OSTP shall coordinate efforts of businesses by means of the National Science and Technology Council (NSTC). The Director of OSTP, by means of the NSTC, shall yearly overview and assess the R&D wants of businesses conducting preparedness actions for EMPs, in line with this order.

Sec. 5. Roles and Responsibilities. (a) The Secretary of State shall:

(i) lead the coordination of diplomatic efforts with United States allies and worldwide companions concerning enhancing resilience to the consequences of EMPs; and

(ii) in coordination with the Secretary of Defense and the heads of different related businesses, strengthen nuclear nonproliferation and deterrence efforts, which would cut back the chance of an EMP assault on the United States or its allies and companions by limiting the provision of nuclear units.

(b) The Secretary of Defense shall:

(i) in cooperation with the heads of related businesses and with United States allies, worldwide companions, and private-sector entities as acceptable, enhance and develop the flexibility to quickly characterize, attribute, and supply warning of EMPs, together with results on house techniques of curiosity to the United States;

(ii) present well timed operational observations, analyses, forecasts, and different merchandise for naturally occurring EMPs to help the mission of the Department of Defense together with United States allies and worldwide companions, together with the availability of alerts and warnings for pure EMPs that will have an effect on weapons techniques, navy operations, or the protection of the United States;

(iii) conduct R&D and testing to perceive the consequences of EMPs on Department of Defense techniques and infrastructure, enhance capabilities to mannequin and simulate the environments and results of EMPs, and develop applied sciences to defend Department of Defense techniques and infrastructure from the consequences of EMPs to make sure the profitable execution of Department of Defense missions;

(iv) overview and replace current EMP-related requirements for Department of Defense techniques and infrastructure, as acceptable;Start Printed Page 12043

(v) share technical experience and information concerning EMPs and their potential results with different businesses and with the personal sector, as acceptable;

(vi) incorporate assaults that embody EMPs as a consider protection planning situations; and

(vii) defend the Nation from adversarial EMPs originating outdoors of the United States by means of protection and deterrence, in line with the mission and nationwide safety coverage of the Department of Defense.

(c) The Secretary of the Interior shall help the analysis, improvement, deployment, and operation of capabilities that improve understanding of variations of Earth’s magnetic area related to EMPs.

(d) The Secretary of Commerce shall:

(i) present well timed and correct operational observations, analyses, forecasts, and different merchandise for pure EMPs, unique of the duties of the Secretary of Defense set forth in subsection (b)(ii) of this part; and

(ii) use the capabilities of the Department of Commerce, the personal sector, academia, and nongovernmental organizations to constantly enhance operational forecasting companies and the event of requirements for industrial EMP know-how.

(e) The Secretary of Energy shall conduct early-stage R&D, develop pilot applications, and associate with different businesses and the personal sector, as acceptable, to characterize sources of EMPs and their couplings to the electrical energy grid and its subcomponents, perceive related potential failure modes for the power sector, and coordinate preparedness and mitigation measures with power sector companions.

(f) The Secretary of Homeland Security shall:

(i) present well timed distribution of data on EMPs and credible related threats to Federal, State, and native governments, crucial infrastructure house owners and operators, and different stakeholders;

(ii) in coordination with the heads of any related SSAs, use the outcomes of threat assessments to higher perceive and improve resilience to the results of EMPs throughout all crucial infrastructure sectors, together with coordinating the identification of nationwide crucial features and the prioritization of related crucial infrastructure at best threat to the consequences of EMPs;

(iii) coordinate response to and restoration from the consequences of EMPs on crucial infrastructure, in coordination with the heads of acceptable SSAs;

(iv) incorporate occasions that embody EMPs as a consider preparedness situations and workout routines;

(v) in coordination with the heads of related SSAs, conduct R&D to higher perceive and extra successfully mannequin the consequences of EMPs on nationwide crucial features and related crucial infrastructure—excluding Department of Defense techniques and infrastructure—and develop applied sciences and tips to improve these features and higher defend this infrastructure;

(vi) keep survivable means to present essential emergency info to the general public throughout and after EMPs; and

(vii) in coordination with the Secretaries of Defense and Energy, and knowledgeable by intelligence-based menace assessments, develop quadrennial threat assessments on EMPs, with the primary threat evaluation delivered inside 1 yr of the date of this order.

(g) The Director of National Intelligence shall:

(i) coordinate the gathering, evaluation, and promulgation, as acceptable, of intelligence-based assessments on adversaries’ capabilities to conduct an assault using an EMP and the chance of such an assault; andStart Printed Page 12044

(ii) present intelligence-based menace assessments to help the heads of related SSAs within the improvement of quadrennial threat assessments on EMPs.

(h) The heads of all SSAs, in coordination with the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall improve and facilitate info sharing with private-sector counterparts, as acceptable, to improve preparedness for the consequences of EMPs, to determine and share vulnerabilities, and to work collaboratively to scale back vulnerabilities.

(i) The heads of all businesses that help National Essential Functions shall be sure that their all-hazards preparedness planning sufficiently addresses EMPs, together with by means of mitigation, response, and restoration, as directed by nationwide preparedness coverage.

Sec. 6. Implementation. (a) Identifying nationwide crucial features and related precedence crucial infrastructure at best threat.

(i) Within 90 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of SSAs and different businesses as acceptable, shall determine and listing the nationwide crucial features and related precedence crucial infrastructure techniques, networks, and belongings, together with space-based belongings that, if disrupted, might moderately lead to catastrophic nationwide or regional results on public well being or security, financial safety, or nationwide safety. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall replace this listing as essential.

(ii) Within 1 yr of the identification described in subsection (a)(i) of this part, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of different businesses as acceptable, shall, utilizing acceptable authorities and private-sector requirements for EMPs, assess which recognized crucial infrastructure techniques, networks, and belongings are most weak to the consequences of EMPs. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall present this listing to the President, by means of the APNSA. The Secretary of Homeland Security shall replace this listing utilizing the outcomes produced pursuant to subsection (b) of this part, and as essential thereafter.

(b) Improving understanding of the consequences of EMPs.

(i) Within 180 days of the identification described in subsection (a)(ii) of this part, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of SSAs and in session with the Director of OSTP and the heads of different acceptable businesses, shall overview check information—figuring out any gaps in such information—concerning the consequences of EMPs on crucial infrastructure techniques, networks, and belongings consultant of these all through the Nation.

(ii) Within 180 days of figuring out the gaps in current check information, as directed by subsection (b)(i) of this part, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of SSAs and in session with the Director of OSTP and the heads of different acceptable businesses, shall use the sector partnership construction recognized within the National Infrastructure Protection Plan to develop an built-in cross-sector plan to deal with the recognized gaps. The heads of businesses recognized in the plan shall implement the plan in collaboration with the personal sector, as acceptable.

(iii) Within 1 yr of the date of this order, and as acceptable thereafter, the Secretary of Energy, in session with the heads of different businesses and the personal sector, as acceptable, shall overview current requirements for EMPs and develop or replace, as essential, quantitative benchmarks that sufficiently describe the bodily traits of EMPs, together with waveform and depth, in a kind that’s helpful to and could be shared with house owners and operators of crucial infrastructure.

(iv) Within Four years of the date of this order, the Secretary of the Interior shall full a magnetotelluric survey of the contiguous United States to assist crucial infrastructure house owners and operators conduct EMP vulnerability assessments. Start Printed Page 12045

(c) Evaluating approaches to mitigate the consequences of EMPs.

(i) Within 1 yr of the date of this order, and each 2 years thereafter, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the Secretaries of Defense and Energy, and in session with the Director of OSTP, the heads of different acceptable businesses, and private-sector companions as acceptable, shall submit to the President, by means of the APNSA, a report that analyzes the know-how choices out there to enhance the resilience of crucial infrastructure to the consequences of EMPs. The Secretaries of Defense, Energy, and Homeland Security shall additionally determine gaps in out there applied sciences and alternatives for future technological developments to inform R&D actions.

(ii) Within 180 days of the completion of the actions directed by subsections (b)(iii) and (c)(i) of this part, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of different businesses and in session with the personal sector as acceptable, shall develop and implement a pilot check to consider out there engineering approaches for mitigating the consequences of EMPs on probably the most weak crucial infrastructure techniques, networks, and belongings, as recognized in subsection (a)(ii) of this part.

(iii) Within 1 yr of the date of this order, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the heads of related SSAs, and in session with acceptable regulatory and utility commissions and different stakeholders, shall determine regulatory and non-regulatory mechanisms, together with price restoration measures, that may improve private-sector engagement to deal with the consequences of EMPs.

(d) Strengthening crucial infrastructure to face up to the consequences of EMPs.

(i) Within 90 days of finishing the actions directed in subsection (c)(ii) of this part, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the Secretaries of Defense and Energy and in session with the heads of different acceptable businesses and with the personal sector as acceptable, shall develop a plan to mitigate the consequences of EMPs on the weak precedence crucial infrastructure techniques, networks, and belongings recognized beneath subsection (a)(ii) of this part. The plan shall align with and construct on actions recognized in stories required by Executive Order 13800 of May 11, 2017 (Strengthening the Cybersecurity of Federal Networks and Critical Infrastructure). The Secretary of Homeland Security shall implement these parts of the plan which are in line with Department of Homeland Security authorities and assets, and report to the APNSA concerning any extra authorities and assets wanted to full its implementation. The Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the Secretaries of Defense and Energy, shall replace the plan as essential based mostly on outcomes from the actions directed in subsections (b) and (c) of this part.

(ii) Within 180 days of the completion of the actions recognized in subsection (c)(i) of this part, the Secretary of Defense, in session with the Secretaries of Homeland Security and Energy, shall conduct a pilot check to consider engineering approaches used to harden a strategic navy set up, together with infrastructure that’s crucial to supporting that set up, towards the consequences of EMPs.

(iii) Within 180 days of finishing the pilot check described in subsection (d)(ii) of this part, the Secretary of Defense shall report to the President, by means of the APNSA, concerning the fee and effectiveness of the evaluated approaches.

(e) Improving response to EMPs.

(i) Within 180 days of the date of this order, the Secretary of Homeland Security, by means of the Administrator of the Federal Emergency Management Agency, in coordination with the heads of acceptable SSAs, shall overview and replace Federal response plans, applications, and procedures to account for the consequences of EMPs.Start Printed Page 12046

(ii) Within 180 days of the completion of actions directed by subsection (e)(i) of this part, businesses that help National Essential Functions shall replace operational plans documenting their procedures and duties to put together for, defend towards, and mitigate the results of EMPs.

(iii) Within 180 days of figuring out weak precedence crucial infrastructure techniques, networks, and belongings as directed by subsection (a)(ii) of this part, the Secretary of Homeland Security, in session with the Secretaries of Defense and Commerce, and the Chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, shall present the Deputy Assistant to the President for Homeland Security and Counterterrorism and the Director of OSTP with an evaluation of the results of EMPs on crucial communications infrastructure, and suggest adjustments to operational plans to improve nationwide response and restoration efforts after an EMP.

Sec. 7. General Provisions. (a) Nothing on this order shall be construed to impair or in any other case have an effect on:

(i) the authority granted by legislation to an government division or company, or the top thereof; or

(ii) the features of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be applied in line with relevant legislation and topic to the provision of appropriations.

(c) This order isn’t meant to, and doesn’t, create any proper or profit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at legislation or in fairness by any get together towards the United States, its departments, businesses, or entities, its officers, workers, or brokers, or every other particular person.

  THE WHITE HOUSE, March 26, 2019. Filed 3-28-19; 11:15 am]

[FR Doc. 2019-06325

Billing code 3295-F9-P